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कर्मचारीतन्त्रमा लोकसेवा आयोगको भूमिका

sd{rf/LtGqdf nf]s;]jf cfof]usf] e"ldsf

;x;lrj÷pk;lrj tyf zfvf clws[t kbsf] lnlvt k/LIffsf] gd"gf k|Zg pQ/

!=     /fHo Joj:yfdf zlQm k[ysLs/0f / zlQm ;Gt'ng eGgfn] s] j'lemG5 < g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# df o; ;DaGwdf ePsf] Joj:yfsf] af/]df rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
@=     lg0f{o lng] k|s[ofdf r/0fx? pNn]v ub}{ o;sf l;G4fGtx?sf] af/]df rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
#=     sd{rf/LtGq eGgfn] s] a'em\g'x'G5 < o;sf ;jn / b'j{n kIfx?sf] JofVof ug'{xf]; .
$=     ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/sf] af/]df ljj]rgfTds ljZn]if0f ug'{xf]; . ;+u7gsf] pb]Zo xfl;n ug{sf lglDt o;sf] s:tf] dxTj /xG5 <
%=     pTk]|/0ffsf] d'Vo l;4fGtx?sf] g]kfndf k|of]usf] cj:yfx? pNn]v u/L g]kfndf sd{rf/LnfO{ pTk]|l/t agfpg ul/Psf] Joj:yfx? pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
^=     nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf k|d'v sfo{x?sf] j0f{g ub{} o;sf] e"ldsfnfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfpg] pkfox?sf] klxrfg ug'{xf]; .
&=     ;dGjo eGgfn] s] j'em\g' x'G5 < ;dGjosf] cefjdf ;+u7gdf s] s:tf] kl/0ffd b]lvg ;S5 JofVof ug'{xf]; .
*=     k/Dk/fut k|zf;g / ljsf; k|zf;gdf s] s:tf] leGgtf kfpg' x'G5 < g]kfnsf] kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df ljsf; k|zf;sdf x'g' kg]{ u'0fx? s] s] x'g <
 (=    cfly{s k|zf;gsf] k|d'v sfo{x? s] s] x'g] < cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 <
!)=    sd{rf/LtGq (Bureaucracy) sf] cjwf/0ff dfS; j]e/n] Nofpg'sf] tYo klxNofpb} cfw'lgs /fHosf] sd{rf/LtGqsf] d"ne"t ljz]iftfx? pbfx/0f ;lxt pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
!!=    ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / lghL k|zf;g jLrsf ;dfgtfsf] ljj]rgf ug'{xf]; . lghL If]qsf] Joj:yfkg z}nL ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf Nofpg s] s:tf] pkfo cjnDjg ug'{knf{ < pNn]v
ug'{xf]; .
!@=    pTk|]/0ff / dgf]jn eg]sf] s] xf] < lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk]|/0ffsf] nflu ul/Psf df}lb|s tyf u}/df}lb|s Joj:yfx?sf] rrf{ ub]{ pTk]|/0ffsf] ;xL Joj:yfkgsf] nflu s] s:tf s'/fx?nfO{ Wofg lbOg'k5{ < 5f]6s/Ldf n]Vg'xf]; .
!#=    ;+u7g :yfkgfsf cfwf/x? s] s] x'g < kb;f]kfgo'Qm ;+u7g lgoGq0fd"ns k|zf;g ;~rfng ug{ ;xh x'G5 . lsg xf]nf <
!$=   s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfosf] cjwf/0ff k|:6 kfb}{ g]kfndf o; ;DalGw ePsf] Joj:yf pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
!%=    ljsf; Joj:yfkg -k|zf;g_ nfO{ k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff cg'?ksf] k|zf;s eP/ k'Ub}g . Pp6f ;Ifd ljsf; k|zf;s -Joj:yfks_ sf nflu cfjZos u'0fx? s] s] x'g < tL u'0fx? g]kfnsf] ljsf; k|zf;gdf leq\ofpg s] s:tf Joj:yf ul/Psf 5g <
!^=   ;+u7gsf] p4]Zo k|fKtLdf ;dGjosf] dxTj bzf{pg'xf];\ . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf lgsfout  ;dGjosf] cj:yf jf/] rrf{ ub}{, s:tf] pkfo cjnDag ug{ ;s]df k|ejsf/L ;dGjo sfod ug{ ;lsPnf ;'emfj lbg'xf];\ .
!&=    /fHo ;~rfngsf nflu ;/sf/n] zlQm k|fKt ug]{ cfwf/x? s] s] x'g < g]kfndf tL cfwf/x?sf] cj:yfsf ;Gbe{df df}lns ljj]rgf ug'{xf];\ .
!*=   ljleGg cf/f]x cj/f]x kf/ub}{ jt{dfg cj:yfdf cfOk'u]sf] g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf ;d:ofx? pNn]v ub}{ ;f]af6 l;lh{t k|efjx? pNn]v u/L jt{dfg cj:yfdf lglhs/0f gLlt, s/f/ ;]jf, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, lghL If]qsf]ljsf;sf qmddf x/]s lgsfosf] e"ldsf :ki6 kfl/Psf] x'Fbf dflysf ;d:ofx? Pjd\ k|efjx?jf6 d'Qm kfg{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf s] s;/L ;'wf/ ug{ pko'Qm 7fGg'x'G5, cfk\mgf] cg'ejsf] cf wf/df pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
       
!(=    g]kfnsf] ;/sf/L If]qdf ljZjs} sd tnj ePsf]n] o'jfx? ljb]lzPsf eGg] ;'lgG5 . k|:t't ;Gbe{nfO{ dgg ub}{ o'jfx?sf] cfsif{0f ;/sf/L ;]jfdf kfg{ tnj ;'ljwf lgwf{/0f ubf{ s] s:tf s'/fdf Vofn ubf{ pko'Qm x'G5, ;f/ule{t pkfo pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
   @)=   aGb j[lQk|0ffnL eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf kmfObf / j]kmfO{bf pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
 @!=    g]kfndf xfn;Dd u7g ePsf k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] gfd pNn]v ub}{ k6s k6s o:tf cfof]u s] slt sf/0faf6 u7g ePsf] xf] h:tf] tkfFO{nfO{ nfU5 :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ .
@@=    ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj eGgfn] tkfO{ s] a'e\mg'x'G5 < g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjsf]  cjwf/0ff s;/L k|ltljlDjt ug]{ Joj:Yff ul/Psf] 5 :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ .  
@#=     l6Kk0fL n]Vg'xf]; .
        -s_ ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhL .
        -v_    ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf tYof+ssf] dxTj .
@$=    g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf ;~rf/ bjfP/ jf l7s;Fu kfngf gu/]sf]n] k|zf;gn] jfl~5t pknJwL xfl;n gu/]sf] elgG5, k|zf;gdf ;~rf/sf] dxTj bzf{pb} o;/L bjfP/ jf 7Ls;Fu kfngf gul/Pdf ;~rf/sf sf/0f k|zf;gdf kg{ hfg] k|efj pNn]v ub}{ 7Ls;Fu kfngf ug]{ pkfox? a'Fbfut ?kdf pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
@%=    ah]6 eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf] p4]Zo k|i6\ofpb} ljleGg qmd kf/ ub}{ g]kfnsf] jh]6n] xfn cfP/ u/]sf] k|ultx?sf] ljZn]if0f ug'{xf];\ .
@^=    ;fj{hlgs gLlt eGgfn] s] a'e\mg'x'G5 < ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] th'{df tyf sfof{Gjogdf       ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] s:tf] e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 < pbfx/0f ;lxt rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
@&=    ;+u7g u7gsf cfwf/x? s] s] x'g ;Sb5g < g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ;+u7g :yfkgfdf oL cfwf/x?nfO{ s'g xb;Dd cfTd;ft u/]sf] kfpg'x'G5 < pbfx/0f ;lxt    :ki6 ug'{xf]; .
@*=   cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf ;Gbe{df g]kfndf ePsf k|jGwx? jf/] ;+If]kdf rrf{ ub}{ k|efjsf/L cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf nflu ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/ jf/] cfk\mgf] wf/0ff k|:t't ug'{xf]; .
@(=   k|zf;lgs k|efjsfl/tfsf nflu ;dGjon] s:tf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 < cjwf/0ffTds kIfnfO{ ;d]t b[li6ut ub}{ cfk\mgf ljrf/ JoQm ug'{xf]; .
#)=    k|zf;gsf] Ifdtf / bIftf clej[l4 ug{ /fhg}lts If]qn] k'¥ofpg' kg]{ ;xof]u jf/] ;+If]kdf JofVof ub}{ g]kfndf /fhgLlt / k|zf;g jLrsf] cGt/;DaGw s:tf] /x]sf] kfpg'x'G5 < pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
#!=    g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf cf/If0f / ;sf/fTds lje]bn] v]n]sf] e"ldsf klxrfg ub}{ o;sf sdL sdhf]/L ;d]t cf}Nofpg'xf]; . ;fy} o;nfO{ cem a9L k|efjsf/L agfpg s] ug'{kg]{ 7fGg'x'G5 < pNn]v ug'{xf]; .

#@=    ;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0fsf d'Vo–d'Vo l;4fGtx?sf af/]df cfˆgf] k|:t'lt lbg'xf]; . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df ug]{ k|lqmofdf oL l;4fGtx?sf] k|of]u s;/L ePsf] kfpg' x'G5 / oL ;}4flGts cfwf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf s:tf] /x]sf] b]Vg'x'G5 . ljj]rgf ug'{xf]; .
##=    ;}4flGts cfwf/df ;'zf;gsf] rrf{ ub}{ g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod /fVg ul/Psf Joj:yfx? jf/] pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .




;x;lrj÷pk;lrj tyf zfvf clws[t kbsf] lnlvt k/LIffsf] gd"gf k|Zg pQ/
!=     /fHo Joj:yfdf zlQm k[ysLs/0f / zlQm ;Gt'ng eGgfn] s] j'lemG5 < g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# df o; ;DaGwdf ePsf] Joj:yfsf] af/]df rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æzlQmk[ysLs/0f / ;Gt'ng, jt{dfg ;+ljwfgdf o;sf] Joj:yfÆ
zlQmk[ysLs/0f / ;Gt'ng
;/sf/sf # c+ux? sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsf / Joj:yflksfsf] cf–cfˆg} zlQm x'G5 . Joj:yflksfn] sfg"gsf] lgdf{0f, sfo{kflnsfn] sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog / Gofokflnsfn] sfg"gsf] JofVof ug]{ ub{5g\ . oL zlQmsf] k|of]u :jtGq ?kdf ug{ kfpg] tyf Ps c+un] cGo c+ux?sf] sfo{df x:tIf]k ug{ gx'g] l;G4fGt g} zlQmk[ysLs/0f xf] . /fHosf] ;j} zf;sLo zlQmnfO{ Pp6} c+udf s]Gb|Lt ul/of] eg] Tof] lg/s+'z x'G5 eGg] dfu{bz{gsf cfwf/df zlQmk[ysLs/0fsf] l;4fGt cfPsf] xf] . ;g\ !&$* df k|mfG;sf dG6]:So"n] The Spirt of law df o; cjwf/0ffsf] ljsf; u/]sf x'g\ .
zlQmk[ysLs/0fsf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k zf;g Joj:yf ;+rfng ePdf lg/s'z+tf / :j]R5frfl/tf a9g hfg] x'Fbf ljleGg l;4fGtx? cfTd;ft u/L To;df lgoGq0f ug{  vf]lhPsf] x'G5 . h;n] lg/s'z+tfsf] cGt / :j]R5frfl/tfsf] knfog ug{ d2t ub{5 h;nfO{ zlQm ;Gt'ng elgG5 .
dfyL rrf{ ul/Psf] cu+x?df s'g} klg JolQm Ps c+u eGbf j9L c+udf /xg x'b}g, Ps c+usf] sfd / st{Jodf cs]{ c+un] x:tIf]k ug{ x'b}g / Ps c+u / csf]{ c+ujLr sfddf Overlapping x'g' x'b}g . c+u cnu ePtf klg o;n] ug]{ sfd st{Jodf lgoGq0f ug]{ tyf Ps c+u ljgf csf]{ k"/s x'g g;Sg] ug{ x/]s /fi6«df s'g} g s'g} lgod4f/f o;nfO{ k[ys / ;Gt'lnt kfg{ vf]lhPsf] x'G5,  lrq x]/f} M

The legislation can
The executive can
The judiciary can
Legislation
MAKE LAW
Veto legislation Recommend
Review legislation Act
Executive
-          Conform Executive appointment
-          Override (executive veto)

ENFORCE LAW
Review executive acts issue, injection, Mandamus
Judiciary
-          Impeach
-          create or eliminate courts
-          Grants pardons
-          Nominate judge
INTERPRET LAW
Dark ul/Psf] pure separation of power xf] eg] cGo ;Gt'ng / lgoGq0f xf] .
Check and Balance is a means of giving each branch of government some scrutiny of and control over the branches its season that Check and  balance would prevent one branch from ignoring or over powering The others.
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df o;sf] Joj:yf
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] efu – % sfo{kflnsf, efu ^ Joj:yflksf / efu !) Gofokflnsfsf] k[ys–k[ys  Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . oL # c+ux? k[ys–k[ys Joj:yf ul/Ptf klg logLx? jLr k[ysLs/0f / ;Gt'ngsf] cj:yf af/] lgDgfg';f/ lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf nflu lgDg lqsf]0faf6 :ki6 kfg{ vf]lhPsf] 5 .
      ;;+bn] agfPsf] sfg"g sfof{Gjog ug]{
      ;+;bsf] clwj]zg cfJxfg / cGTo ug]{
      ah]6 / ;/sf/L ljw]os k]z ug]{
      ;lGw ;Demf}tf cg'df]bg
      ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/zdf k|wfgGofoflwzsf] lgo'lQm
      Gofofnoaf6 ePsf] ;hfo dfkmL, d'NtjL / ldgfxf ug{ ;Sg]
      cbfntdf sd{rf/L Joj:yf
      km};nf sfof{Gjog, ah]6 Joj:yf
      ;+;bn] agfPsf] lgod cdfGo jf ab/ 3f]if0f ug{ ;Sg]
      ;lGwx? k'g/fjnf]sg u/fpg ;Sg]
      sfg"g agfpg]
      ;lGw ;Demf}tf kfl/t ug]{
      ljw]os kfl/t ug]{
      ;/sf/sf] u7g ug]{ / cljZjf;sf] k|:tfj
sfo{kflnsf








 



Gofokflnsf                               Joj:yflksf
      ;;+bLo ;'gjfO{, dxfcleof]u / jflif{s k|ltj]bg dfyL 5mnkmn
      sfg"gsf] JofVof, cbfntdf ljrf/flwg d'4fjf/] ;;+bdf 5nkmn ug{ gkfOg],, ;;+bn] agfPsf] sfg"g cdfGo jf jb/ 3f]if0ff ug{;Sg], dfgxfgLsf] d'2f rnfpg ;Sg] 
 






dfyLsf] lrqdf lbOPsf] M–– ;+s]tn] sfo{kflnsfn] Joj:yflksf pk/, Joj:yflksfn] Gofokflnsf pk/, Gofokflnsfn] sfo{kflnsf pk/ tyf Joj:yflksfn] sfo{kflnsf, Gofokflnsfn] Joj:yflksf / sfo{kflnsfn] Gofokflnsf pk/ lgoGq0f / ;Gt'ng s;/L ul/Psf] 5 / oL c+u s;/L k[ys 5g elg ;+ljwfg cg';f/ ePsf] Joj:yf xf] . o;/L s'g} / s'g} b]zdf zf;g ;+rfng ubf{ s'g} Ps c+u lg/s'z+ gxf]; eGgsf vflt/ o; k|sf/sf] Joj:yf x'G5 hf] g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df klg cfTd;ft ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
@_     lg0f{o lng] k|s[ofdf r/0fx? pNn]v ub}{ o;sf l;G4fGtx?sf] af/]df rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– ælg0f{o k|lqmof, r/0f / l;4fGtx?sf] rrf{Æ
lg0f{o k|lqmof
;fj{hlgs If]qsf k|d'v sfo{sf/Lsf] sfo{x? dWo] k|d'v sfo{ g} lg0f{o lng' xf] . To;}n] lg0f{onfO{ ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] d'6'sf] ?kdf b]lvG5 . ljBdfg ljleGg ljsNkx? dWo]af6 pko'Qm, ;dof]lht / Jojxfl/s ljsNksf] ;kmntfk"j{s 5gf}6 ug'{ g} lg0f{o xf] . s'g} lglZrt nIo k|flKtsf nflu lg0f{o ug]{ lhDd]jf/L sfof{no k|d'vsf] x'g cfp5 . jf:tjdf v/fjx?af6 c;n, k|efjlxgaf6 k|efjzfnL, hl6ntfaf6 ;/n, clgZro / e|daf6 lgZro / e|dxLg Pjd\ j]7Lsaf6 7Ls ljsNksf] 5gf}6 g} ;kmn / j}1flgs lg0f{o lbg' xf] . ;xL / lxts/ lg0f{o ug{ bjfj, k|efj / cefjaf6 d'Qm x'g] jftfj/0f x'g' cfjZos kb{5 .
lg0f{o k|lqmofsf r/0fx? M
1.        ;d:ofsf] klxrfg
2.        lg0f{o ug]{ cfwf/x?sf] klxrfg
3.        cfwf/x?sf] ef/ lgwf{/0f
4.        ljsNkx?sf] ljsf;
5.        ljsNkx?sf] ljZn]if0f
6.        ljsNksf] 5gf}6
7.        ljsNksf] sfof{Gjog
8.        lg0f{o k|efjsfl/tfsf] d'Nof+sg .
o; r/0fn] lg0f{onfO{ Rational Choice ug{ d4t ub{5 . k|0ffnL ljZn]if0faf6 x]g]{ xf] eg] lg0f{o k|lqmofnfO{ c;Gt'ngaf6 ;Gt'ng lt/ hfg] k|lqmofsf ?kdf x]l/G5 . c;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d:ofsf] ?kdf / ;Gt'ngnfO{ lg0f{o k|lqmofsf] c;/ jf k|efjsf ?kdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 .
lg0f{o k|lqmofsf l;4fGtx? M
1.      Rational Decision Making : lg0f{ostf{n] pko'St -pQd_ ljsNksf] 5gf]6 ub{5 of]     Economic man Approach df cfwfl/t x'G5 .
2.      Behavioural Approach : 5gf]6sf] qmddf lg0f{ostf{ k"0f{ ljj]sL aGg ;Sb}g . o;nfO{ Administrative man model elgG5 .
3.      Incremental Approach : ;fljsdf ul/Psf] lg0f{odf s]xL a9f]Q/L u/L lg0f{o ug]{ .
4.      Mixed–Scanning Theory : o;df s]xL Rational / s]xL incremental k|lqmof ckgfpg]
5.      Intuitive : lg0f{ostf{sf] :jljj]s
6.      Situational : kl/l:ylt cg';f/ lg0f{o ug]{
7.      Participative : dftxtsf ;j} ;xof]uLx?nfO{ lg0f{odf ;xeflu u/fpg] .
8.      Satisfying : ;Gt'li6nfO{ Maximum ug]{ u/L .
9.      Reactive : ;d:of cfO;s]kl5 lg0f{o ug]{ .
10.  Pro–active : ;d:of cfO;s]kl5 lg0f{o ug]{ .
11.  Formalism : cgf}krfl/stfsf] lgjf{x dfq .

lg0f{o Past df Problem, Present df Choice / future df Implementation ug{sf nflu ul/G5 . o;nfO{ "A bridge between thought and actions" klg elgG5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df x]bf{ ;}4flGts lx;fjn] lg0f{o k|lqmof ckgfOPsf] Hofb} sd dfq kfOG5 . oxfF ;d:of cfPkl5 dfq lg0f{o ul/G5 jf sfof{Gjog x'g} g;Sg] lg0f{o klg ug]{ ul/Psf] kfOG5 . tyflk vf; u/L gjLg ;f]r / k|0ffnL cg'?k hf]lvd jxg ug]{ lsl;dn] lg0f{o ug]{ k|zf;s tyf /fhg}lts g]t[Tj txaf6 Hofb} sd dfq x'g] x'gfn] clwsf+z lg0f{ox? Incremental Theory df cfwfl/t eP/ ug]{ ul/Psf]
kfO{G5 .
#=     sd{rf/LtGq eGgfn] s] a'em\g'x'G5 < o;sf ;jn / b'j{n kIfx?sf] JofVof ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æsd{rf/LtGq, o;sf ;jn / b'j{n kIfÆ
sd{rf/LtGq
/fhgLlt1sf] lqmoflzntfn] dfq /fHo k|lqmofn] ck]lIft ult lng g;Sg] ePsf]n] /fHo ;+rfng ;oGqsf] ?kdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf] xf] . French zJb Bureau sf] Bereaux eGg] zJbaf6 Bureaucracy sf] cjwf/0ff cfO{ ;fdfGotof ;/sf/L sfo{k|0ffnL / sfo{:ynnfO{ k|ltljlDjt u¥of] . k|mfG;sf] /fHoqmflGt ;g\ !&*( b]lv g} of] zJbsf] k|of]u ePsf] xf] .
Bureaucracy zJb Bureau / Cracy af6 ag]sf] xf] h;df Bureau eg]sf] written desk with drawer / Cracy zJbn] System of government by the paid officials x'G5 cyf{t Bureaucracy is the system of government by the paid officials not by the elected ones.
Bureaucracy sf] dfGotf jf wf/0ff ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf ljsf; eGbf klxn] b]lv g} ePtf klg u|Ls zJbfjnLsf cg';f/ Bureaucracy n] cfwf/e"t ?kdf sfof{nosf] zlQm jf lgod jf sfof{no ;+rfng ljlwnfO{ OlËt ug]{ ub{5 . Jojl:yt cWoogsf] ?kdf Bureaucracy nfO{ cuf8L a9fpg] klxnf] ;dfhzf:qL Max weber g} lyP . pgn] ;g\ !($& df legitimate Authority and Bureauracy eGg] n]v n]v/ Bureaucracy sf] ljz]iftf k|sfzg u/] . Max weber (1864-1920) hd{gLdf hGd]sf lyP . pgL sfg"gsf ljBfyL{ x'g\ . t/ pgL jfln{g o"lge;{l;6Lsf] k|f]km];/ eP . Weber never defined Bereaucracy but characteristics its. pgn] sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ o;k|sf/n] ljz]iftf cf}NofPsf lyP .
·       kb;f]kfgut ?kdf ;+ul7t
·       sfo{z}nL sfg"g4f/f lgwf{/0f
·       of]Uotf / Ifdtfdf cfwfl/t egf{
·       lgwf{l/t tnj ;'ljwf
·       hfuL/nfO{ g} j[lQsf] ?kdf j/0f
·       :ki6 sfo{ cg'zf;g -cfr/0f_
·       lg:kIf sfo{jftfj/0f
·       ;Dkflbt sfo{sf] clen]v
o;/L weber n] bureaucracy is an organization structure charactersized by regularized procedure, division of responsibility hierarchy and impersonal relationship. The term can characterize either governmental or non governmental organization elg cf}NofPsf 5g\ .
;jn / b'j{n kIf
;jn kIf
b'j{n kIf
·       of]Uotf k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t
·       lgod ;+ut ;+oGq
·       cf}krfl/s ;DaGwdf s]Gb|Lt sfo{k|0ffnL
·       kb;f]kfg o'Qm k|0ffnL
·       j[lQ ljsf;sf] ;xh dfu{
·       cj}olQms sfo{k|0ffnL
·       Co-ercive Power o'Qm sfo{z}nL
·       lg/Gt/tfsf] 3f]ts
·       pQ/bfoL k|0ffnL
·         Division of labour
·       ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf;
·       ljj]szLntfo'Qm sfo{k|0ffnL
·       s7f]/ sfo{k|0ffnL
·       dfgjLo d"No dfGotfk|lt lga}olQms ;f]r
·       of]Uotfsf] pGdfb÷b'/ufdL ;f]rsf] cefj
·       Rent seeking behaviour -cfltl/Qm nfe_
·       Red tapism -l9nf ;':tL_
·       k/Dk/fut ;/+rgfdf cfwfl/t
·       Buck Passing k|j[lQ  -sfd kG5fpg]_
·       cfˆgf] e"ldsf k|lt lqmofzLn
·       tby{jfbL sfo{z}nL÷;+s6 pGd'v sfo{
·       /fhgLlt1sf] nfrf/ 5fofF
·       Value free technocrats sf] hdft
·         Result eGbf process oriented
·       Catch 22 -k|s[of ;[hgf ug]{ ;o+q cflb


;jn / b'j{n kIf h] ePtf klg xfd|f] sd{rf/LGq Weber n] JofVof u/]sf] Legal rational Authority cGtu{t cfh ko{Gt ;lqmo 5 .




$=     ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/sf] af/]df ljj]rgfTds ljZn]if0f ug'{xf]; . ;+u7gsf] pb]Zo xfl;n ug{sf lglDt o;sf] s:tf] dxTj /xG5 <
pQ/ M– ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/
;+u7g / Jojxf/ b'O{ zJb ldln ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/ jg]sf] x'G5 . cyjf ;+u7g leq sfd ug]{ dflg;x?sf] Jojxf/ eGg] j'lemG5 . o;df ;+u7g eg]sf] lglZrt / k"j{ lgwf{l/t p4]Zo k|flKtsf nflu Pslqt dfgjLo / u}/dfgjLo ;|f]tsf] ;o'Qm ?k xf] . of] p4]ZoGd'v Joj:yf xf], ;fdflhs dgf]j}1flgs k|0ffnL xf], k|ljlwut k|0ffnL xf] / ;+/rgfTds lqmofsnfkx?sf] Plss[t ?k xf] .
s'g} sfd ubf{ pTkGg x'g] k|lts[of hf] dfgjLo ;fwg4f/f k|blz{t x'G5 . To;nfO{ Jojxf/sf] ?kdf j'‰g ;lsG5 . sfd ug]{ t/Lsf, s'g} cfGtl/s jf jftfj/0fLo sf/0fk|ltsf] k|ltlqmof, lglZrt jftfj/0fLo cj:yfdf dflg;n] h] u5{, Tof} g} Jojxf/ xf], Jojxf/ s'g} sf/0fn] pTkGg x'G5, of] lglZrt p4]Zo tkm{ pGd'v x'G5 eg] b]Vg jf j'‰g ;lsg] t/ k"jf{g'dfg ug{ ufx|f] x'G5 .
;+u7gfTds k|efjsfl/tf / JolQmut ;Gt'li6sf nflu ;+u7gdf dfgjLo Jojxf/sf] cWoog / k|of]u ug]{ ljlwnfO{ ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/ elgG5 . o;sf] cWoogsf nflu dgf]lj1fg, ;dfhzf:q / dfgjzf:qsf] 1fg k|of]u ul/G5, of] dfgj enfO{sf nflu k|of]u ul/g] dfgjLo ;fwg xf] .
of] Pp6f cWoogsf] o:tf] If]q xf] h;n] JolQm, ;d"x / ;+u7gsf] 9fFrfn] dfgjLo Jojxf/df kfg{] k|efjsf af/]df cWoog ub{5 . o:tf] cWoog ;+u7gsf] k|efjsfl/tf j[l4 ug{sf nflu ul/G5, dflg;x? s;/L JolQmut / ;fd"lxs ?kdf ;+u7gdf sfo{ ub{5g eGg] af/]sf cWoog / k|of]u g} ;+u7gfTds Jojxf/ xf] . o;n] JolQmn] s;/L j9L k|efjsf/L 9+un] sfo{ ug{ ;Sb5 eGg] af/]df vf]h ;d]t ub{5 .
;+u7gfTds Jojxf/sf] dxTj M
of] cfr/0fut cjwf/0ff ePsf] x'Fbf ;+u7gdf sfd ug]{ dflg;sf] cfr/0f ;'wf/ ug{ o;sf] dxTj 5,
of] p4]Zo pGd'v x'G5 M dflg;sf] Jojxf/ j'‰g, cg'dfg ug{ / Joj:yfkg ug]{ kIf;Fu dxTj 5 . oL nIo k|fKt ub}{ ;+u7gfTds k|efjsfl/tf k|fKtL ug]{ sfd OB n] ub{5 .
of] cfr/0fnfO{ lgwf{/0f ug]{ ljleGg k|sf/sf tTjx? l;t ;DalGwt x'G5 .
;+u7gdf sfd ug]{ JolQm, ;d"x / ;+u7gfTds k|0ffnL h:tf tTjx?n] cfr/0fnfO{ k|efj kfg]{ ePsf] x'Fbf ;+u7g leq cfr/0fsf If]qdf dxTj x'G5,
·       Jojl:yt cWoog ePsf]n] o;}sf] dfWodaf6 lgDg sf/0f / k|efjx?sf] cWoog ub{5 M -s_ k|df0fdf cfwfl/t lgisif{ lgsfNg -v_ cg';Gwfg / cjwf/0ffut 9fFrfdf dfgj Jojxf/
j'‰g .
·       Dfflg;sf] Jojxf/nfO{ j'em]/, cg'dfg u/]/ / Joj:yfkg u/]/ OB n] dflg;nfO{ pTk|]l/t ug]{ / k|efjsfl/ 9+un] pkof]udf o;sf] dxTj 5 .
·       cGt/lge{/tf M o;s} dfWodaf6 cfr/0fut lj1fg -dflg;n] lsg, s;/L lglZrt Jojxf/ ub{5g\_ nfO{ cGo ;fdflhs lj1fg;Fu cfj4 ub{5 .
%=     pTk]|/0ffsf] d'Vo l;4fGtx?sf] g]kfndf k|of]usf] cj:yfx? pNn]v u/L g]kfndf sd{rf/LnfO{ pTk]|l/t agfpg ul/Psf] Joj:yfx? pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– Motivation is the process of liberating the will to work, of] Ps cfGtl/s cj:yf xf], o;n] lglZrt sfo{ ug{sf nflu tof/ u/fpFb5, sfddf lg/Gt/ ?kdf nflu /xg k|]l/t ub{5, nIo k|flKtsf nflu tTk/tf xf] eg] of] JolQmsf] dgf}j}1flgs kIf;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 .
l;4fGtx?
1.      Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow
2.      Two factors theory – Herzberg
3.      Theory of "X' &'Y' – MC Gregor
4.      Expectency Theory – VICTOR VROOM
5.      Theory 'Z" – William Ouchi
6.      Equity Theory – J.Stacy Adams
7.      Three needs Theory- MC Cleland
8.      Erg Theory – Aldfers
g]kfn lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t sd{rf/LnfO{ s;/L j9L pTk|]l/t u/fpg ;lsG5 eGg] ljifodf yf]/} dfq cg';Gwfg sfo{ ul/Psf] kfO{G5 . Psflt/ x/]s jif{ sd{rf/L ;+Vof j9b} hfg' / csf]{ tkm{ tL sd{rf/L dfkm{t cfd hgtfn] kfpg] ;]jf ;'ljwfdf sdL cfPsf]n] o;sf] sf/0f klxrfg ug'{ cfjZos b]lvPsf] 5 . sd{rf/Lx? sfd k|lt pTk|]l/t x'g g;s]sf]n] g} of] cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] xf] . o;}n] o;jf/] hfgsf/L lng lghfdtL ;]jfdf sfo{/t ljleGg txsf sd{rf/Lx?sf] jlu{s/0f u/L pTk|]/0ffsf l;4fGtx?sf] k[i7e'dLdf o;sf] rrf{ s;/L ePsf] 5 eGgsf nflu sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ lgDg # ;d'xdf juL{s/0f u/L pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
;xfos :t/df sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lx? M lo sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof nueu () k|ltzt /x]sf] tyf tna ;'ljwf ;fx|} sd /x]sf] 5 . dfl;s tnjn] hLjg wfGg !) lbg dfq k'Ug] cj:yf 5 . df:nf]sf] l;4fGt cg';f/ k|fKt tnjn] cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] kl/k'lt{ gx'g] / vf;} sfd Pj+ lhDd]jf/L ;d]t gtf]lsPsf] x'gfn] ;f] k|flKtsf nflu cGo sfddf k|fyldstf lbg'kg]{ cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . logLx? 'X' Theory cGtu{t kb{5g\ / Joj:yfksn] pgLx?sf] dxTjaf]w ;d]t u/]sf] kfOb}g .
clws[t:t/ t[tLo / låtLo >]0fLsf] kbdf sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lx? M s]xL ckjfbdf afx]s o; >]0fLdf klg Maslow sf] klxnf] cfjZostf k'/f ug'{ wf} wf} k/]sf] cfef; b]lvG5 . Maslow sf] l;4fGt cg';f/ of] >]0fLsf sd{rf/Lx? bf]>f] / t]>f] >+[vnfdf kb{5g\ . logLx?sf] ;fdflhs OHht s]xL eP tfklg sfof{nodf sfd ubf{ Herzberg n] pNn]v u/sf @ tTj l;4fGtaf6 lkl8t 5g\ . Psftkm{ sd{rf/Lx? ljrsf] cGt/;DaGw, gf]s/Lsf] ;'/Iff, kb ;Ddfg, sfd ug]{ aftfj/0f cflb kIfdf ;d:of b]lvPsf 5g\ eg] csf]{ tkm{ dfGotf, lhDd]jf/L, pGgltsf] cj;/ cflb klg :ki6 5}g . Joj:yfksn] nfP c¥xfPsf] sfd ug{ jfWo 5g\ .

/f=k=k|yd / ;f] eGbf dflyNnf] bhf{sf sd{rf/Lx? M logLx?n] s]xL xb;Dd cfwf/e't cfjZostf k'lt{ ug{ ;s] tfklg cGo cfjZostf k'/f ug{ ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . ljb]zL ;Nnfxsf/ / cGo sd{rf/L ;fd' pgLx? cfkm'nfO{ pk]lIft 7fGb5g\ . pgLx? Herzberg sf] @ tTj l;4fGtx?df pNn]v ePsf] pTk|]/s tTjaf6 jl~rt ePsf] cg'e'lt ul//x]sf 5g\ . pgLx? s]xL xb;Dd McGragor sf] Theory 'X' tL/ em's] tfklg dftxt sd{rf/Lsf] cfjZos ;xof]u k|fKt ug{ g;s]sf] / sfof{nosf] gLlt lgdf{0fdf kl/jt{g eO/x]sf] sf/0f cfkm' pTk|]l/t x'g ;s]sf 5}gg\ . o;}u/L /fhgLlts bjfj, bjfj ;d'xsf sf/0f klg sfd ug{ sl7gfO{ o; ju{sf sd{rf/Lx?df kg{ uPsf] cg'e'lt ug{ ;lsG5 .

g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df sd{rf/LnfO{ pTk|]l/t agfpg ul/Psf] Joj:Yff M
df}lb|s ;'ljwf M tnj, eQf, rf8jf8vr{ tyf cGo ;'ljwf kfpg], kbdf jxfnL u/]sf] ldlt b]lv tnj kfpg], sfd u/]sf] tnj h'g;'s} cj:yfdf kfpg], ! jif{ k"/f u/]kl5 ! u|]8 yk kfpg], dfl;s tjnsf] !)Ü ;~rosf]if yk, k]G;g, pkbfg, czQm j[lQ, kfl/jfl/s sNof0f j[lQ, ;Gtlt j[lQ, jLdf, cf}iflw pkrf/ vr{, n'ufeQf, b}lgs e|d0f eQf, gful/s nufgL sf]if÷o:t} b'3{6gf jLdf, ;l~rt ljbfsf] /sd, b'u{d :yfg dQf, dxFuL eQf .
u}/ df}lb|s M– ljbf, pRr cWoogsf] df}sf, ;]jfsf] ;'/Iff, c;fw/0f, cWoog ljbf, ;fd"lxs oftfoft, st} st} cfjf;, ;jf/L ;fwg, vfOkfO cfPsf] tnj g36\g], ;'gjfO{sf] df}sf, tfnLd cflb .

^=     nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf k|d'v sfo{x?sf] j0f{g ub{} o;sf] e"ldsfnfO{ cem k|efjsf/L agfpg] pkfox?sf] klxrfg ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# sf] efu !# wf/f !@%, !@^, !@& df nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] af/]df Joj:yf 5 . h; cg';f/ g]kfn /fHodf Ps nf]s ;]jf cfof]u x'g] h;df cWoIf / cfjZostf cg';f/ cGo ;b:o /xg], ;+j}wflgs kl/ifb\sf] l;kmfl/zdf cfof]usf cWoIf / ;b:osf] lgo'lQm /fi6«kltaf6 x'g] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . ;+ljwfg cg';f/ lghfdtL ;]jfsf] kbdf lgo'lQmsf] lgldQ pko'Qm pDd]bjf/sf] 5gf]6 ug{ ljleGg lsl;dn] k/LIffx? ;+rfng cfof]uaf6 x'g] Joj:yf 5 .
g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# cg';f/ cfof]usf] sfd M
!= lghfdtL ;]jfsf] kbdf lgo'lQmsf] nflu pko'Qm pDd]bjf/ 5gf]6 ug{ k/LIff ;+rfng ug'{,
@= lghfdtL ;]jfsf] lgj[Qe/0f kfpg] kbdf nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] k/fdz{ ljgf :yfoL lgo'lQm ug{ gx'g],
#= lgDg ljifodf cfof]usf] k/fdz{ lng'kg]{,
·       lghfdtL ;]jfsf] zt{ ;DaGwL sfg'gsf] ljifodf,
·       lghfdtL ;]jfsf] kbdf lgo'lQm, a9'jf / ljefuLo sf/jfxL ubf{ ckgfpg' kg]{ l;4fGtsf] ljifodf,
·       lghfdtL ;]jfsf kbdf ^ dlxgf eGbf j9L ;dosf] nflu lgo'lQm ubf{ pDd]bjf/sf] pko'Qmtfsf] ljifodf,
·       s'g} Ps k|sf/sf] lghfdtL ;]jfsf] kbaf6 csf]{ k|sf/sf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;?jf jf j9'jf ubf{ pDd]bjf/sf] pko'Qmtfsf] ljifodf,
·       nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] k/fdz{ lng' gkg]{  cj:yfsf] kbdf axfn /x]sf] sd{rf/LnfO{ nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] k/fdz{ lng' kg]{ cj:yfsf] kbdf :yfoL ;?jf jf j9'jf ug]{ ljifodf,
·       s'g} klg lghfdtL sd{rf/LnfO{ lbOg] ljefuLo ;hfosf] ljifodf,
·       k|To]s jif{ nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] cfkm"n] u/]sf] sfdsf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg /fi6«klt ;dIf k]z ug]{ / /fi6«kltn] To:tf] k|ltj]bg ;;+b ;dIf k]z ug]{ .
o:t} nf]s ;]jf cfof]usf] e"ldsf Merit system sf] ;+/Ifs, lghfdtL ;]jfsf] hgs, g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;Nnfxsf/, ;/sf/L sfd sf/jfxL ;Dalw Auditor sf] Roel, ;;+bLo ;ldltdf k|ltj]bgdf 5nkmn ;DaGwdf ;r]tssf] e"ldsf, Interactive and proactive role nufotsf 5g\ .
e"ldsf k|efjsf/L kfg]{ pkfo M
gLltut ;'wf/
sfg"gL ;'wf/
sfo{ut ;'wf/
·       cWoog cg';Gwfg sfo{df jl9 ;lqmotf a9fpg],
·       gLlt lgdf{0fdf kxn ug]{,
·        tfnLd ;~rfng,
·       Positive recruitment k4lt ;d]t cjnDjg ug]{,
·       k/LIffyL{sf] Score k|sfzg ug]{,
·       k/fdz{ :jLsfg{ ;/sf/nfO{ g}lts bjfj l;h{gf ug]{,
·       ;+j}wflgs cfzo adf]lhdsf] k/fdz{ lbg],
·       sfo{tflnsf cg';f/ sfd ;DkGg ug]{,
·       Gofok"0f{ k/fdz{bftfsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ .
·       lgb]{lzsfdf ePsf s'/fx?nfO{ P]gdf ;dfj]z ug]{,
·       cWoogsf] lg:sif{nfO{ sfg"gdf /fVg],
·       gLlt lgdf{0fdf ;+nUgtf agfpg],
·       g]kfn /fHoe/ Network lj:tf/
·       Research sf] sfo{ sfg"gdf ;dfj]z ug]{,
·       klxnf] kb:yfkgf cfof]uaf6} ug]{,
·       k/fdz{nfO{ afWofTds agfpg] u/L sfg"gdf ;+zf]wg ug]{ .
·       cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] k|of]u,
·       k/LIff kmf/fd Ps k6s e/] ;f] kbnfO{ ;w} x'g] kg]{,
·       /fo ;Nnfx ;fj{hlgs ug]{,
·       k|Zg kq lgdf{0f, k/LIf0f, c+s cflb sfo{ clt uf]Ko /fVg],
·       kf7\oqmd Academic ePsf]n] Jojxfl/s kfg]{,
·       kf7\o k':tsx?sf] Reference lbg],
·       clwsf/ k|Tofof]hgsf sfd sf/jfxLsf] cg'udg ug]{ .

o;sf ;fy} cGt/f{li6«o Best practices nfO{ cfTd;ft, Data table k|of]u nufot a9'jf ;ldltsf] ;lrjfno / Leadership assessment centre sf] sfo{df klg cfof]usf] e"ldsf a9fpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .


&=     ;dGjo eGgfn] s] j'em\g' x'G5 < ;dGjosf] cefjdf ;+u7gdf s] s:tf] kl/0ffd b]lvg ;S5 JofVof ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– ;dGjo eg]sf] s] xf] <
s'g} klg ;+u7gsf ljleGg zfvf, dxfzfvf tyf PsfO{x? jf tL lgsfo jf PsfO{x?df sfo{/t clwg:y Pjd\ pRr sd{rf/Lx? tyf clwg:y, clwg:y / pRr txsf sd{rf/Lx? jLrdf s'g} klg sfo{;Dkfbgsf] qmddf ldnfOg] tfnd]n h'6fOg] k|of; / sfod ul/g] ;dembf/L Pjd\ ;fd~h:o tyf Ps ;+u7gn] csf]{ ;+u7g jLr cGt/;+u7g :t/Lo ?kdf Ps csf{sf sfo{x? ;'rf? ?kn] ;~rfng ug]{ u/fpg] l;nl;nfdf tL lgsfox? jLrdf sfod /flvg] cfk;L ;xof]u, ;dembf/L / ;fd~h:otfnfO{ ;dfli6ut ?kdf ;dGjo elgG5 .
;+u7gsf] nIo xfl;n ug{ ljleGg ;+u7gx? tyf JolQmx?sf] lqmofsnfknfO{ Ps ;fy hf]8g] k|lqmof g} ;dGjo xf] . ;du|df ;dGjo eGgfn] M
·       ;+u7gsf] p4]Zo Pjd\ nIo xfl;n ug{ sfo{x?sf] Plss/0f
·       sfo{x? jLr ;DaGw :yflkt ug]{ Pjd\ p4]Zo / nIo;Fu sfo{x?nfO{ Tie up ug]{,
·       ;+u7gdf sfo{/t sd{rf/Lx? jLr ;DaGw :yflkt ug]{,
·       sfo{x?sf] >[vnf Chain of task Jojl:yt ug]{,
·       lgsfout ;~hfn Networking sfod ug]{,
·       ;b\efj / ;xsfo{ ljsl;t ug]{,
·       sfdsf] kl/0ffd, u'0f:t/ / ;dojLr cGt/ ;DaGw :yflkt ug]{ .
o;k|sf/ ;+u7gdf ;dGjo cefj ePsf lgDgfg';f/sf] kl/0ffd b]lvg ;S5 M–
;'zf;gdf oq tq 5l/P/ /x]sf >f]t / ;fwgnfO{ Ps;fy h'6fpg] tyf ;+u7gsf ;b:ox? jLr pTkGg åGbx?nfO{ ;d'lrt lgsf; k|bfg u/L JolQmut cfjZostfx?df ;d]t Wofg lbO{ ;fd"lxs k|of;nfO{ ;+u7gfTds nIo k"lt{ ug]{ lbzfdf n}hfg dxTjk"0f{ ;fwgg} ;dGjo x'gfn] ;+u7gdf ;dGjo cefj ePdf lgDg kl/0ffd b]lvG5 M
·       sfo{k|s[lt / dfgjLo k|j[lQ jLr /x]sf] ljljwtfnfO{ Pstf sfod ug{ c;xhtf, sfo{df bf]xf]/f]kgf x'g],
·       ;+u7gfTds sfo{bIftfsf ;fy ;fy} ldtJolotf sfod u/fpg c;Dej,
·       sd{rf/Ldf dgf]jn / pTk|]/0ff Pj+ xf};nf 36\g],
·       sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf] jLrdf c;fd~h:otf a9g],
·       cg'zf;glxgtf a9g hfg],
·       ;fd"lxs efjgf Pj+ ;xsfl/tfsf] efjgfsf] ljsf; gx'g],
·       sfo{x? ;/n, sd vlr{nf] / kf/blz{ gx'g],
·       ;+u7gdf /fd|f] sfo{jftfj/0fsf] l;h{gf gx'g],
·       pTkfbsTj 36\g],
·       nIo / sfo{jLr c:ki6tf x'g] .
ct M ;dGjo eGg] s'/f] hj ;+u7g :yfkgf x'g yfn] tj b]lv g} cfPsf] xf] . ;+u7g z'?df sd lyP / /fHon] ;]jf k|jfx klg w]/} If]qdf ug{ kb}{gYof], hj hgtfsf] ;]jf If]q j[l4 eP To;kl5 Ps} k|s[ltsf] ;]jfsf nflu @ lgsfo jLr klg ;dGjo x'g' kg]{ cj:yf cfof] . ;dGjo ePg eg] pTkfbsTj 36\g], lgoldt sfo{;Dkfbgdf afwf kg]{, cfGtl/s / jfxo jftfj/0f jLr ;dembf/L gx'g], dgd'6fj j9g] tyf Joj:yfksLo bIftf a9fpg g;lsg] x'Fbf hgtfsf] ;]jf / ;+u7gsf] ljsf; ug{ ;dGjo cfjZos kb{5 .
*=     k/Dk/fut k|zf;g / ljsf; k|zf;gdf s] s:tf] leGgtf kfpg' x'G5 < g]kfnsf] kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df ljsf; k|zf;sdf x'g' kg]{ u'0fx? s] s] x'g <
pQ/ M– k/Dk/fut k|zf;g M– cfd gful/ssf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;fF:s[lts nufot ;jf{lË0f ljsf;sf nflu lqmofsnfksf] ;~rfng u/L gful/s ;fd" ;/sf/sf] pkl:yt jf]w u/fO{lbg] a}wflgstf k|fKt ;/+rgf g} k/Dk/fut k|zf;g xf] . p4]Zo k|flKtsf nflu :yflkt / ;~rflnt dfgjLo tyf ef}lts ;fwg kl/rfg ug{' g} k/Dk/fut k|zf;g xf] . Public administration is detailed and Systematic execution of public law.
ljsf; k|zf;g M– ljsf; k|zf;g of]hgfj4 ljsf; k|lqmof;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 . o;n] Bottom-up-planning nfO{ cufFNg] sfd ub{5 . ljsf; of]hgf, gLlt, sfo{qmdsf] th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'dug tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / tL ;j}sf nflu pko'Qm x'g] lsl;dsf] k|zf;lgs kl/kf6Lsf] Joj:yf u/L ltgsf] Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ k|zf;g g} ljsf; k|zf;g xf] . Development Administration is an action oriented and goal oriented administrative system xf] .
kl/rosf] cfwf/df oL b'O{ k|zf;g jLr lgDg cfwf/df lgDg leGgtf b]lvG5 M–
cfwf/
k/Dk/fut k|zf;g
ljsf; k|zf;g
      ljZjf;
      oyfl:yltdf ljZjf;
      kl/jt{gd'vL
      sfo{If]q
      Jofks÷k'/} d'n's
      ljsf;÷;Lldt If]q
      ;+/rgf
      nfdf] -s]Gb| b]lv ufFp_
      5f]6f] -tf]lsPsf] :yfg_
      sfo{k|0ffnL
      k|s[ofd'vL
      kl/0ffdd'vL
      pQ/bfloTj
      s]Gb|d'vL
      hgd'vL
      kb;f]kfg
      e4f
      5l/tf]
      lg0f{o k|lqmof
      kbd'vL
      ;xeflutfTds
      Character
      s7f]/kgf
      nlrnf]
      Autonomous
      s]Gb|Los/0f
      ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
      Resource
      cfGtl/s
      cfGtl/s÷jfx|o

hg;xeflutf, /fli6«o cfosf] ;dfg ljt/0f, of]hgfj4 kl/jt{g, ljsf;df /fhg}lts k|ltj4tf, lg/Gt/ k|fz;g ;'wf/, p4]Zod'vL k|zf;g, k|zf;gdf Joj;flos/0f, hgd'vL ljsf; k|s[of ljz]iftfo'Qm ljsf; k|zf;g / k/Dk/fut k|zf;gsf] h] ;'s} leGgtf ePtfklg kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{df ljsf; k|zf;sdf x'g'kg]{ u'0fx? lgDgfg';f/ 5 M–
·       kl/jt{gd'vL ;f]r,
·       kl/0ffd'vL b[li6sf]0f,
·       u|fxsd'vL nIo,
·       sfdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg],
·       sfdk|lt k|ltj4,
·       ;dok|lt ;r]t,
·       ;xeflutfd"ns Joj:yfks,
·       of]hgfa4 ljsf;sf] dfGotf /fVg],
·       af}l4s, sfo{;~rfng ;DaGwL ;Lk, d"Nok|lt ;r]t, g}lts, cGj]ifs .
t;y{ M ljsf; k|zf;gn] k|zf;gsf] ljsf;sf] k|;+u klg p7fPsf] 5 . ;fy} ljsf; k|zf;sn] k/Dk/fut dfgl;stfdf ;d]t kl/tj{g ug'{kb{5 . ;f] k|of]hgsf nflu ljsf; k|zf;sx?df kl/jt{gsf] ;jf+xssf] ?kdf ;d]t k|zf;sx?nfO{ x]g{ vfh]sf] 5 .
(=     cfly{s k|zf;gsf] k|d'v sfo{x? s] s] x'g] < cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug]{ ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] s] s:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 <
pQ/ M Financial Administration is backbone of Management cfly{s >f]tsf] ;'–;+rfng ug]{ ;o+Gq g} cfly{s k|zf;g xf] . of] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] Pp6f xfufF xf] . cfly{s k|zf;gnfO{ ;j{hlgs ljQsf] k|zf;g klg elgG5 . ;+u7g ;+rfngsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ 6m+I dWo]sf] Money klg Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ ;|f]t xf] h;sf] ;'k|jGw cfly{s k|zf;g4f/f ul/G5 .
Financial Administration involving the machinery and methods by which for the support of public service are raised, spent and sccounted for is the very core of modern government.
cfly{s k|zf;gsf] k|d'v sfo{x?
    1.        >f]t Joj:yfkg ug'{
·         /fh:j ;+sng ug'{,
·         ah]6 th'{df ug'{,
·         ah]6 :jLs[lt u/fpg',
·         ljQLo gLlt sfof{Gjog
·         vr{sf] clVtof/L k|bfg,
·         gub k|jfxsf] Joj:yf .
    2.        vr{ Joj:yfkg ug'{
·         ;fj{hlgs ;]jf ;+rfng vl/b / lgdf{0f,
·         vr{sf] n]vfÍg ug'{ tyf e'QmfgL lbg',
·         dfl;s cfjlws tyf jflif{s cfly{s ljj/0f th'{df,
·         cf=n]=k=tyf lgoGq0f .
    3.        C0f, cg'bfg Joj:yfkg ug'{
·       bftfx?;Fu C0f cg'bfg k|:tfj k]; ug{',
·       C0f tyf cg'bfg ;Demf}tf ug'{÷u/fpg',
·       C0f tyf cg'bfg pkof]u Joj:yf ldnfpg',
·       n]vfÍg / k|ltj]bg ug'{ .
   4.        pQ/bfloTj jxg ug'{
·       clGtd n]vf k/LIf0f u/fpg',
·       k|efj k/LIf0f u/fpg' .
cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug{ ;/sf/L Joj:yf M
·       ljwflosf tyf ;+;b
·       ;;+bLo ;ldltx?
·       cy{ dGqfno
·       /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
·       ljifout dGqfnox? tyf ;+j}wflgs lgsfox?
·       dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{no
·       sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGqs sfof{no
·       dxfn]vf k/LIfs
·       g]=/f=j}+s tyf ;/sf/L sf/f]jf/ ug]{ j}+s
·       sfo{ ;~rfng:t/Lo sfof{no tyf cfof]hgfx?
o;k|sf/ lgsfout ;/r+gf hf] cfly{s cg'zf;gdf ;+nUg 5g\, h;n] cfly{s >f]t ;fwgsf] ;+sng Pj+ k|flKt, >f]t ;fwgsf] afF8kmfF8, pkof]u, n]vfs+g, k|ltj]bg, n]=k=tyf d"Nof+sg, gub k|jfx Joj:yfkg h:tf sfo{x? g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, cfly{s P]g lgod, ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g lgodfjnL Pjd\ k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd ug]{ ub{5g\ . o;sf cnjf cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug{ dxfn]vf k/LIfsn] ljleGg lgb]{lzsf hf/L ug]{, cf}lrTosf] cfwf/df n]vfk/LIf0f ug]{, ;fj{hlgs vl/b P]g, lgoddf vl/b k|lqmofaf/] pNn]v, ;do ;dodf ;/sf/af6 ;/sf/L vr{ dLtJolotf ug]{ lgb]{lzsf hf/L, kbLo b'?kof]u u/L e|i6frf/ u/]df clVotf/ b'?kof]u cg'Gwfg cfof]u, cfly{s cg'zf;g sfod ug{ rf}dfl;s k|ult ;dLIff, vr{sf] kmfF6jf/L nufotsf cGo s'/fx? k|rlnt sfg"gaf6} lgb]{lzt 5g\ .
!)=    sd{rf/LtGq (Bureaucracy) sf] cjwf/0ff dfS; j]e/n] Nofpg'sf] tYo klxNofpb} cfw'lgs /fHosf] sd{rf/LtGqsf] d"ne"t ljz]iftfx? pbfx/0f ;lxt pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æsd{rf/LtGqsf] cjwf/0ff / ljz]iftfÆ
/fhgLlt1sf] lqmofzLntfn] dfq /fHo k|lqmofn] ck]lIft ult lng g;Sg] ePsf]n] /fHo ;~rfng ;oGqsf] ?kdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf] xf] . /fHo ;~rfngsf] ;oGqsf] k|lqmof, k4lt sfo{;Fu ;DalGwt lqmofsnfksf] ?kdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] kl/efiff ug]{ ul/G5 . ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ;~rfngnfO{ Jojl:yt ug]{ sfo{ sd{rf/LtGqn] ug]{ ub{5 .
Bureaucracy zJbdf Bureau sf] cy{ written desk with drawer / cracy sf] cy{ system of government in operation cyf{t Bureaucracy is the system of government by the paid officials not by the elected ones.  k|m]Gr zJb Bureau sf] Bureaux af6 Bureaucracy sf] cjwf/0f cfO{ ;fdfGotof ;/sf/L sfo{ k|0ffnL / sfo{ :ynnfO{ k|ltljlDjt u¥of] . Max weber (1864-1920) hd{gLdf hGd]sf x'g . pgL sfg"gsf ljBfyL{ ePtfklg jln{g ljZjljBfno;Fu cfj4 lyP . pgn] Bureaucracy cjwf/0ff Nofpg' d"ntM lgDg ljifox?sf sf/0f lyof] .
·       sfof{no / JolQm jLr :ki6 sfo{ ljefhg,
·       l:y/ sd{rf/LtGq / j[lQ k|0ffnLsf] ultzLn dfu{ to ug{,
·       kb;f]kfg -clwsf/ / klxrfgsf] ljz]iftf_
·       cf}krfl/s÷cgf}krfl/s ;DaGw,
·       /fHo zlQm ;~rfngsf] cfwf/
·       lg:kIf sfo{jftfj/0f,
·       ;Dkflbt sfo{sf] clen]v,
·       lgwf{l/t tnj ;'ljwf .
Weber n] # j6f clwsf/sf] ?kdf Bureaucracy nfO{ cf}NofPsf lyP M
Traditional M– k/Dk/f cg's"n rNg]
Charismatic M– cfˆgf] cg'oflonfO{ clwsf/
Legal rational M– sfg"g ;Ddt 9+uaf6 k|of]u x'g]
oL dWo] Legal rational Authority k|of]u ug]{ k|0ffnL g} sd{rf/LtGq xf] . /fhgLlt1x?sf] zlQm jf Joj:yflksfaf6 lgld{t sfg"g jf sfo{sfl/0fLn] k|Tofof]lht clwsf/nfO{ ljj]s ;Ddt 9+uaf6 k|of]u ug]{ k|zf;sLo k|0ffnL g} weber n] sd{rf/LtGqsf] ?kdf pNn]v u/]sf] x'Fbf cjwf/0ff Nofpg] tYo
xf] .
cfw'lgs /fHo k|0ffnLdf sd{rf/LtGqsf] d"ne"t ljz]iftf lgDgfg';f/ x'g'kb{5 M
1=     c;n zf;g / ;'zf;gsf] dfu j9\bf] ePsf] x'Fbf ;j} kIf ;lDdlnt u/L hgefjgf cg's'n cuf8L a9\g] sd{rf/LtGq x'g'kb{5 .
2=     k/Dk/fut sd{rf/LtGqaf6 a9\bf] dfu / cfsf+Iffx? k"/f ug{ c;kmn ePsf] x'Fbf gofF d"No / dfGotf cg's"nsf] zf;g ;+rfng tkm{ cu|;/ o'Qm sd{rf/LtGq .
3=      k'/fgf pQ/bfloTj kl/Tofu u/L gofF pQ/bfloTj u|x0f o'Qm ljz]iftfsf] sd{rf/LtGq
4=   c;n lzIff, c;n ;"rgf ;+rf/ / hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] ;]jfx?df kl/jlt{t e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{ ;Sg] ljz]iftfo'Qm sd{rf/LtGq
5=    hg;xeflutf, e|i6«frf/ lgoGq0f, nrsbf/ sfo{k|s[of, nf]stflGqs d"No dfGotfdf s]Gb|Lt ljz]iftfo'Qm sd{rf/LtGq
6=     ;fj{hlgs lghL ;fe]mbfl/tf o'Qm ;+u7g ;+/rgf ePsf] sd{rf/LtGq
7=     cfly{s pbfl/s/0fsf] ;Gbe{df lghL :jfldTj / pRr ;dtf sfod /fVg ;Sg] ljz]iftf o'Qm ePsf] sd{rf/LtGq
8=    ljs]lGb|s/0f, k"0f{ lgIf]k0f h:tf s'/fnfO{ ;+jf]wg ug]{ sd{rf/LtGq
9=     sfg"gL zf;g, cg's"n /xL dfgj clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt ug]{ ePsf] sd{rf/LtGq
10=  hjfkmb]xL o'Qm ljz]iftf ePsf] sd{rf/LtGq .
o;/L cjsf] /fHo k|0ffnLdf sd{rf/LtGqn] cfkm'n] ug]{ sfo{ / ljz]iftfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg u/L cfkm"n] ug]{ / gug]{ sfd 5'§ofP/ ug]{ sfd (Core function) dfq ug]{ ;Gb{edf Legitimate, control, inhance, promote h:Tff If]q x]/L cGo If]qdf hf] ;Ifd 5g\ To;}nfO{ sfd ug{ lbg' ;fGble{s 7xl/G5 . of] g} cfw'lgs /fHo k|0ffnLdf pQd ljz]iftf x'g]5 .

!!=    ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g / lghL k|zf;g jLrsf ;dfgtfsf] ljj]rgf ug'{xf]; . lghL If]qsf] Joj:yfkg z}nL ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf Nofpg s] s:tf] pkfo cjnDjg ug'{knf{ < pNn]v
ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g cfd gful/ssf] ;dflhs, cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ;fF:s[lts nufot ;jf{lË0f ljsf;sf nflu lqmofsnfksf] ;+rfng u/L gful/s ;fd' ;/sf/sf] pkl:ylt jf]w u/fOlbg] j}wflgstf k|fKt ;+/rgf xf] . o;n] gful/ssf] Joj:yfkg k|zf;gdf gljg ;f]r / dfGotfsf] k|j]z, ;fj{hlgs >f]tsf] Joj:yfkg / ;fj{hlgs sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog ub{5 .
o;} u/L :jtGq sfo{k|0ffnL, Joj:yfksLo :jfoQtf, ;fwgsf] pRrtd pkof]u, Component sd{rf/L, Flexible sfo{k|0ffnL / 5l/tf] ;+u7gfTds 9fFrf ePsf] k|lt:kwf{4f/f gfkmf sdfpg] p4]Zo ;fy JolQmut lx;fjn] v'n]sf] ;+u7g lghL k|zf;g xf] .
;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] sfo{ ;]jf ug'{ / lgod tyf lgb]{zgsf] kfngf4f/f of]hgfsf] sfd ug'{ xf] eg] lghL k|zf;gsf] If]q JolQmx?sf] ;xof]udf k|lt:kwf{4f/f gfkmf sdfpg' xf] . vf; u/L ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf hgtfsf] rfxgf tyf hgtfs} >f]t k|of]u x'G5 eg] lghL k|zf;gdf rfxgf / >]ft b'j} lghL If]qsf] x'g] ub{5 . t/ klg lghL k|zf;g / ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf sfo{If]q, p4]Zo sfo{;Dkfbg z}nLsf lx;fjdf s]xL ;dfgtf 5g M
;dfgtf M
p4]Zo M       b'j} k|zf;gsf] p4]Zo hgtfsf] enfO{ / sNof0f xf] . hg;Dks{ b'j}sf] k|d'v cfwf/ ePsf]n] of] ljgf b'j} k|zf;g ;kmn / k|efjzfnL x'g ;Sb}gg .
;+u7g M      b'j} k|zf;g ;+rfngsf nflu ;+u7gsf] clgjfo{ cfjZostf kb{5 .
P]g, sfg"g M   b'j} k|zf;g ;+rfngsf nflu lglZrt P]g–sfg"g tyf lgodx? xG5g\ .
gofF vf]h M    b'j} k|zf;gn] k|ult / gofF ult k|bfg ug{ vf]h / cg';Gwfg ug'{kb{5 .
sd{rf/L M b'j} k|zf;gdf sd{rf/L clgjfo{ tTjsf] ?kdf /x]sf x'G5g\ .
o;sf cjfjf b'j} k|zf;gn] p4]Zo k|flKtsf nflu >]ft ;wfgsf] cfbz{ cEof; ub{5g\ . Joj:yfkg zLk, ;+oGq / k|ljlwdf cfwf/e"t ;dfgtf kfOG5 . cfGtl/s lgoGq0f / ;Gt'ng b'j} If]qdf ckgfOPsf] kfOG5 . oBlk xfn lghL / ;fj{hlgs If]qsf] Ps csf{df kfOg] u'0fx? lngsf nflu ;fe]mbf/L ug]{, Joj:yfkg ;'wf/ ug]{ sfo{x?n] k|fyldstf kfPsf 5g\ .
lghL If]qsf] Joj:yfkg z}nL ;fj{hlgs If]qdf Nofpg lgDg adf]lhd pkfo cjnDjg ug'{ k5{ M
·       ;'wf/sf] If]q klxrfg / sfof{Gjog
·       gLltsf] sfo{lbzf rogdf s'zn hgzlQmsf] ljsf;
·       ;d:ofsf] klxrfg / kl/efiffdf ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj
·       lghL If]q / gful/s ;dfhdf klg sfo{x? x:tfGt/0f ug]{
·       ;Ifd / k|efjsf/L sfo{qmd th'{df
·       lghfdtL ;]jfdf cg';Gwfg
·       gful/s j8fkqnfO{ k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog
·       zlQm, >f]t ;fwg / clwsf/sf] ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
·       Jofj;flostfsf] ljsf;
·       gofF k|ljlw / lghL If]qsf] s'zntfsf] k|of]u .
o;sf ;j} gful/s /fHo ;DaGw cf1fsf/Laf6 k|fKtL -lng] lbg]_ tkm{ nUg], hjfkmb]lxtf /fhgLlt1 k|lt geO{ u|fxs Pjd\ ;/f]sf/jfnf k|lt ug]{, dfu{bz{g lgod sfg"gd'vL eGbf bIftf / kl/0ffdd'vL kfg]{, pTkfbg eGbf pknAwL tkm{ s]Gb|Lt ug]{ / lg:kIftfaf6 Joj;flostf tkm{ nUg ;s] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ ;do ;fk]If kfg{ ;xh x'g] lyof] .
!@=    pTk|]/0ff / dgf]jn eg]sf] s] xf] < lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk]|/0ffsf] nflu ul/Psf df}lb|s tyf u}/df}lb|s Joj:yfx?sf] rrf{ ub]{ pTk]|/0ffsf] ;xL Joj:yfkgsf] nflu s] s:tf s'/fx?nfO{ Wofg lbOg'k5{ < 5f]6s/Ldf n]Vg'xf]; .
pQ/ MpTk|]/0ff MMotivation is the Process of the will to work." of] cfGtl/s cj:yf xf], lglZrt sfo{ ug{sf nflu o;n] tof/ u/fpFb5, sfddf lg/Gt/ ?kdf nflu /xg o;n] k|]l/t ub{5, of] nIo k|flKtsf] nflu tTk/tf xf] ;fy} JolQmsf] dgf]j}1flgs kIf;Fu ;DalGwt x'G5 .
dgf]jn M Morale is a state of mind and emotions. Morale feeling sf] ;+ufnf] xf] . of] sd{rf/Lsf] Sentiments / Attitude sf] ld>0f xf] . High motivation High Morale – High Productivity.
dgf]jn
pTk]|/0ff
-      ;fd"lxs x'G5 .
-      JolQmut x'Gg
-      ;d"xut sfo{jftfj/0f
-      Joltmut Jojxf/
-      pRr dgf]jnaf6 pRr pTk]|/0ff gx'g]
-      pRr pTk|]/0ffaf6 pRr dgf]jn x'g]
-      ;sf/fTds s'/fx?af6 k|fKt
-      gsf/fTdsaf6 klg k|fKt
-      sfo{;Dkfbg ;Fu ;DalGwt
-      sfo{;Gt'i6L ;Fu ;DalGwt

lghfdtL ;]jfdf pTk]|/0ffsf nflu Joj:yf M
df}lb|s M ;l~rt ljbfsf] /sd, lgj[Qe/0f, pkbfg, czQm j[lQ kfl/jfl/s sNof0f j[lQ,  z}lIfs tyf ;Gtlt j[lQ, jf]g; rf8jf8 vr{, b'3{6gf jLdf, hLjg jLdf, ls:tfjGbL, cfjf; ;'ljwf, oftfoft ;fwg vr{, n'uf eQf, tnj eQf, b'u{d eQf, g]tf eQf, dxFuL eQf, s=;= sf]if s§L / yk gf=n= sf]if, ljz]if ;fk6L cflb .
u}/df}lb|s M cWoog ljbf, cfwf/0f ljbf, lghfdtL ;]jf c:ktfn ;fd"lxs oftfoft ;'ljwf, 6]lnkmf]g ;'ljwf, ;§f ljbf, tflnd, cjnsf]g e|d0f cflb .
oL ;j} Joj:yf sd{rf/L / kl/jf/n] cfly{s ?kdf lkl8t x'g gk/f]; nugzLntfsf ;fy sfd ug{ ;s'g, ;+u7gsf] pb]Zo k'/f xf]; . sd{rf/Ln] /fxtsf] dxz'; u/f]; / ;fdflhs k|lti7f sfod xf]; / pRr pTk]|/0ffn] pTkfbsTj j[l4df Pjd\ ;+u7gsf] VoftLdf cl3 j9f]; eGgsf vflt/ xf] .
pTk]|/0ffsf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu Wofg lbg'kg]{ s'/fx? M
·       sd{rf/Lx?sf] nflu c;n gLlt lgdf{0f ug]{,
·       gf]s/Lsf] ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt ug]{,
·       sfdsf l;nl;nfdf ePsf u'gf;f] ;'Gg] k|j[lQsf] ljsf;
·       sfo{ ;DalGw /fd|f] g]6jls{ª u/L ;dGjo ug]{
·       ;j} sd{rf/L k|lt Joj:yfkg4f/f ;dfg Jojxf/ x'g' kg]{
·       /fd|f] sfd ug]{nfO{ k|z+zf / ;'ljwf k|bfg ug]{
·       sfo{ lhDd]jf/L lbO{ pQ/ bfloTj a9fpg]
·       Management / Decision Making df ;xeflutf ug]{
·         sfo{k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ (IT/kits/MIS)
·       /fd|f] sfo{jftfj/0f (eod'Qm, cf; / qf;sf] ;+of]hg_
·       kof{Kt tjn ;'ljwf .
pk/f]Qm Joj:yf ul/Pdf Effected Implementation, Improved services, Team building and Mission oriented organization x'g hfg] / o;df yk Right men in the right Place u/] ;b}j pTk]|l/t e} pRr sfo{;Dkfbg x'g]5 .

!#=    ;+u7g :yfkgfsf cfwf/x? s] s] x'g < kb;f]kfgo'Qm ;+u7g lgoGq0fd"ns k|zf;g ;~rfng ug{ ;xh x'G5 . lsg xf]nf <
pQ/ M lglZrt p4]Zo k|fKtLsf nflu Ps eGbf j9L dflg;x?sf] k|oTg z'? x'g g} ;+u7gsf] k|fb'ef{j xf] . nIo k|fKtLsf nflu dflg;x?sf] sfo{ ljefhg xf] . Association for attainment of common people jf ;dGjofTds ?kdf sfd sfh ug]{ k4lt ljz]if /x]sf] clwsf/sf] j}wflgs :j?k g} ;+u7g xf] .
;+u7gsf] :yfkgf s'g cfwf/df ug'{ kb{5 eGg] dfGotfsf] ljsf; Luther Gullick sf] ;do b]lv g} ePsf] b]lvG5 . 4Ps sf] ?kdf pgn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] l;4fGtsf] k|efjsfl/tf cf}lrTotf h:tf kIfnfO{ kf]if0f ug]{ ub{5 . ljz]if u/L ;+:yfsf] sfo{ ;]jf k|bfg ug'{kg]{ If]q tyf ;]jfsf k|s[ltsf cfwf/df ;+u7gsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] x'G5 . ltgnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
-!_    People/Client principle M s'g} JolQm jf ju{sf] lxtsf nflu :yfkgf ul/Psf ;+u7gx?, h:t} M dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u, /fli6«o blnt cfof]u cflb
-@_    Purpose/Function Principle . s'g} lglZrt p4]Zo k|fKtLsf nflu :yfkgf ul/Psf x'G5g\ . h:t} M u[x dGqfno -;Ldf, cWofudg_ /Iff dGqfno -o'4, cdgrog_, jLdf ;+:yfg
-JolQmut÷lhG;L jLdf_
-#_    Process Principle M ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] bIftf, of]Uotf zLksf] kmfO{bf lng] u/L lgdf{0f ul/g] ;+u7g, h:t} M ejg ljefu, jftfj/0f lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno .
-$_    Place/area Principle M s'g} lglZrt :yfgdf /x]/ j:t' jf ;]jfsf] pTkfbgsf lgldQ :yfkgf ul/g] ;+u7g, b]zsf] s'g} efudf b]lvPsf ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ :yfkgf ul/g] ;+u7g h:t} M gu/ljsf; ;ldltx?, If]qLo lhNnf sfof{nox? cfbL .
              kb;f]kfg eg]sf] kbx?sf] txut÷>]0fLut >[vnf xf] . o;df lk/fld8 cfsf/sf] ;+oGq /x]sf] kfOG5 . ;DejtM g]kfndf !M@M$ sf] Ratio df kbx? /x]sf] b]lvG5 . of] jf:tjdf lgoGq0f ug{ ;xh xf]; eGgsf vflt/ g} ul/Psf] dflgG5 .
              lgoGq0f lsg <
                 Setting the standards
Checking the performance
Correcting the errors
Revision the method
lgoGq0fn] lgwf{l/t pb]Zo cg'?k sfd ePsf] 5 5}g < nIo k|fKt x'Fb} 5 jf 5}g < k|fKt ePsf pb]Zo  Appropriate 5g\ 5}gg < p4]Zo / lqmofsnfk jLr Gap 5 5}g < ;fwgsf] clwstd pkof]u / Corrective tools sf] sfd ub{5 . olb kb;f]kfg ePg eg] Tof] ;Dej 5}g .
kb;f]kfgo'Qm ;+u7gdf lgoGq0fd"ns k|zf;g ;+rfng ug{ lgDg sf/0f  ;xh x'G5 M
-      pTkfbsTj, u'0f:t/ / ;]jf ultzLntf clej[l4 x'g]
-      k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] nIo lgwf{/0f ;fd"lxs k|of;df x'g]
-      sfo{;Dkfbg d"Nof+sg ug{ ;/n
-      s;}sf] Control df /xg] x'Fbf >f]t / ;fwgsf] clwstd / k"0f{ pkof]u e} pTkfbsTj a9g]
-      ljs[lt lgoGq0f ug{ ;xh lsgsL Ratio df lgoGq0f x'G5
-      cg"udg / d"Nof+sg k4lt Jojl:yt / lgoldt x'g]
-      k|To]s sfo{sf] pknAwL lglZrt x'g]
-      c;n ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf
-      Ffeedback  lng] k/Dk/fn] ubf{ output x]/]/ dfq sfo{qmd
o;k|sf/ kb;f]kfg d"ns ;+u7gdf lgoGq0fn] s] x'g'kg]{ xf] < / s] e} /x]sf] 5 < o;jLrsf] b'/L sd u/L k|zf;g ;+rfng ug{ ;xhtf k|bfg ub{5 .
!$=   s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfosf] cjwf/0ff k|:6 kfb}{ g]kfndf o; ;DalGw ePsf] Joj:yf pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– s]Gb|Lo sd{rf/L lgsfo eGgfn] d'n'sel/sf ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;+nUg sd{rf/Lx?sf] ljsf;, kl/rfng / pkof]u ;DaGwdf /fli6«o gLlt lgwf{/0f / o; lsl;dsf] gLlt sfof{Gjog u/L /fli6«o ljsf; Pjd\ sd{rf/Lx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;/sf/nfO{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] lgsfo eGg] j'lemG5 . sd{rf/Lx?sf] egf{b]lv cjsf;;Ddsf sfo{x? s'g} g s'g} tl/sfn] ;+rfng ug'{kg]{ ePsf] / sfddf bf]xf]/f]kgf / ljljwtf x6fO o:tf ;Dk'0f{ ultljlwx? Pp6} lgsfoaf6 ug{ o;sf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf] xf] .
lghfdtL P]jf P]g, @)$( -k|yd ;+zf]wg_ n] g]kfndf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ s]Gb|Lo k|zf;lgs lgsfosf] ?kdf sfg"gL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 . h;df æb]zsf] k|zf;g ;+rfng ug{ lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] Joj:yfkg / ;+rfngsf] ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnon] s]Gb|Lo lgsfosf] ?kdf sfd ug]{5 .Æ eGg] pNn]v 5 .
t/ sfg'gL Joj:yfdf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno ePklg sfo{k|s[lt x]bf{ lgDg lgsfox? klg CPA s} ?kdf 5g\ .
cy{ dGqfno M–       – s'g} lgsfodf b/jGbL >[hgf jf s6f}tL ug{ k/]df ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ ;xof]u Pjd\ :jLs[lt lbg] .
– tnj eQf ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnosf] ;Nnfx lnO{ ug]{ .
nf]s ;]jf cof]u M–    – sd{rf/L k|zf;gsf] gLlt, lgb]{zg, sd{rf/L gLlt tflndsf sfddf ;fdfGo  k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ ;Nnfx lbg] .
– sd{rf/Lsf] lg:kIf 5gf}6 u/L lgo'lQmsf nflu l;kmfl/;
 – a9'jf, ph'/L, cg'zf;g ;DaGwL sfo{, k/fdz{ .
/fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u M– – cGt/f{li6«o tflndsf] l;kmfl/z
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u M– – e|i6frf/ / clwsf/sf] b'?kof]usf] d'2f
Gofo ;]jf cfof]u M– – g]kfn Gofo ;]jfdf lgo"lQmsf] l;kmfl/z .
o;/L g]kfndf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ CPA tf]lsPtf klg dflysf lgsfosf ultljlw x]bf{ clxn] g} s]Gb|Lo k|zf;lgs lgsfo ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnodfq xf]Og eGg] j'lemG5 . xfn clwsf/ 5/ki6 b]lvP klg Pp6f lgsfo ljgf csf]{ lgsfo k"/s b]lvb}g . P]gn] ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnonfO{ CPA tf]s] klg ;dli6 ?kdf Ps] lgsfoaf6 sd{rf/L k|zf;g ;DalGw sfo{ gePsf] / gx'g] x'Fbf ;j} lgsfonfO{ CPA sf] ?kdf dfGg'kg]{ cj:yf b]lvG5 .

!%=    ljsf; Joj:yfkg -k|zf;g_ nfO{ k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff cg'?ksf] k|zf;s eP/ k'Ub}g . Pp6f ;Ifd ljsf; k|zf;s -Joj:yfks_ sf nflu cfjZos u'0fx? s] s] x'g < tL u'0fx? g]kfnsf] ljsf; k|zf;gdf leq\ofpg s] s:tf Joj:yf ul/Psf 5g <
pQ/ M–ljsf; k|zf;g eg]sf] of]hgfj4 ljsf; k|s[of;Fu ;DalGwt k|zf;g xf] . o;n]
Bottom-up -planning nfO{ c+ufn]sf] x'G5 . ljsf; of]hgf, gLlt, sfo{qmdsf] th'{df, sfof{Gjog, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / oL ;j}sf nflu pko"Qm x'g] lsl;dsf] k|zf;lgs kl/kf6Lsf] Joj:yf u/L ltgsf] Ifdtfdf clej[l4 ug]{ k|zf;gg} ;du|df ljsf; k|zf;g jf Joj:yfkg xf] .
              k/Dk/fut k|zf;s lgDg dfGotfdf /x]sf] x'G5 . 
v of]Uotfdf cfwfl/t lgo'Qm / kbf]Gglt
v ;]jf cjlwsf] ;'/Iff
v lglZrt / dof{lbt tnj
v /fhgLlt / k|zf;g k[ys ljifo
v lgikIftf, t/ cf1fsfl/tf / OdfGbfl/tf .                                      
       o;} u/L k/Dk/fut k|zf;ssf] hjfkmb]lxtf /fhgLlt;Fu x'G5 eg] ljsf; Joj:yfkssf] u|fxs k|lt÷k/Dk/futsf] l;4fGt lgodsfg"gsf] kfngf xf] eg] o;sf] bIftf / kl/0ffd÷k/Dk/futsf] ;kmntf pTkbgdf /xG5 eg] ljsf;sf] pknlAw x'G5 . o;/L k/Dk/fut rl/qsf] Joj:yfksaf6 of] k|zf;g rNg ;Sb}g Pp6f ;Ifd ljsf; k|zf;ssf nflu b]xfosf] u'0fx? cfjZos x'G5 .
·     kl/jt{gd'lv ;f]r
·       kl/0ffdd'vL b[li6sf]0f
·       u|fxsd'vL nIo
·       sfo{nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg]
·       sfdk|lt k|ltj4
·       ;dok|lt ;r]t
·       ;xeflutfd"ns Joj:yfks
·       of]hgfj4 ljs;sf] dfGotf /fVg]
·       af}l4s,sfo{;~rfng ;DalGw ;Lk,d"No k|lt ;r]t, g}lts / cGj]ifs .

g]kfnsf] ljsf; k|zf;gdf oL u'0fx? leq\ofpg ul/Psf Joj:yfx? M–
·     lj=;+=@)!# ;fn b]lv of]hgfj4 ljsf;sf] z'?jft ePkl5 kl/jt{gd'vL, kl/0ffdd'vL / ;do k|lt ;r]ttfo'Qm u'0fsf] k|of]u
·     lj=;+=@)!# ;fnd} k|zf;g oGqnfO{ ;Ifd jgfpg lg=;]=P]g nfu"
·     5}7f}+ of]hgfdf ljsf; k|zf;g gLlt ;dfj]z 
·     cf7f}+ of]hgfdf /fli6«o gLltdf ;dfj]z
·     gjf}+ of]hgfdf Joj:yfkg zAbsf] k|of]u u/L :jR5,5l/tf],sfo{d"ns, ;]jfd"ns,   pTkfbgzLn, ldtJooL / pQ/bfoLk"0f{ agfpg] wf/0ffsf] k|of]u
·     k|zf;g ;'wf/sf ljleGg k|of;x?jf6 ;do ;fk]If kfg]{ k|of;
·       k/Dk/fut ljrf/wf/f;Fu cfj4 k|zf;snfO{ s;/L cfw'lgs ljrf/wf/fsf] k|zf;ssf] ?kdf kl/jt{g ug]{ eGg] cEof; ePsf] .
·                b]zsf] ljsf; / ;fdflhs cfly{s pGgltsf] nIo xfl;n ug{ ;Ifd x'g] lsl;dsf]
 k|zf;goGq s;/L tof/ ug]{ / To;nfO{ alnof] kfg]{ eGg] ;Gbe{df sfo{of]hgfx?
 jg]sf 5g\ -;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnosf] Governance Reform Programme / Change Unit x? cflb_ .
   o:tf] u'0fsf] k|of]uaf6 k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, cfly{sj[l4,hg;xeflutf clej[l4 Equitable distribution of return natural resomce based development, social Justice k|fKtLtk{m ljsf; k|zf;g jf Joj:yfks cu|;/ x'g u} k/Dk/fut cjwf/0ff cg'?ksf] k|zf;sx?sf] ;d]t wf/0ffdf ;f]rdf kl/jt{g Nofpg] k|of; ePsf] 5 .
-!^_          ;+u7gsf] p4]Zo k|fKtLdf ;dGjosf] dxTj bzf{pg'xf];\ . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf lgsfout ;dGjosf] cj:yf jf/] rrf{ ub}{, s:tf] pkfo cjnDag ug{ ;s]df k|ejsf/L ;dGjo sfod ug{ ;lsPnf ;'emfj lbg'xf];\ .
pQ/ M– ;fd"lxs p4]Zosf nflu lqmofzLn x'g] j}wflgs Pjd ljle;Ddt ;+u7gsf ljleGg zfvf÷ k|zfvf tyf sd{rf/Lx?sf] cltl/Qm jfX\o kIfsf jLrdf nIo k|fKtLdf x'g] ;xof]u, ;xsfo{ g} ;dGjo xf] . csf]{ zAbdf ;f+uf7lgs lqmofzLntf Pjd p4]Zok/stfsf] lgldQ ;~rfng x'g] sfo{x?sf jLrdf cfTdlge{/tf k|j4{g ug]{ sfo{, sfo{x?nfO{ p4]Zo k|lt ;+of]hg ug]{ sfo{, sfo{ / pTkfbg jLrdf ;DaGw sfod u/fpg] sfo{ ;dGjo xf] .
         ;dGjosf] dxTj
·                         gLlt p4]Zo sfo{qmd jLr tfnd]n sfod u/L jfl~5t nIo k|fKt ug{
·                         ljleGg :t/sf ljjfb / cGof]ntfsf] ;dfKt ug{
·                         sfo{df bf]xf]/f]kgf x68fpg
·                         ;xof]usf] efjgf clej[l4 ug{ / ;d"xut sfo{df k|f]T;fxg ug{
·                         4Gb x6fpg
·                         ;+u7gsf] bIftf / Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{
·                         u'0f:t/Lo / l56f] 5l/tf] sfo{ ug{
·                          lg0f{odf ;/ntf / ldtJolotf Nofpg
·                         ;fd|fHokg v8f ug]{ k|j[lQ /f]Sg .
g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gdf lgsfout ;dGjosf] cj:yf lgDgfg';f/ 5 M
·          k|wfgdlGq tyf dlGqkl/ifbsf] sfof{noaf6 ljsf; lgdf{0f Pj+ ;d:of ;DaGwdf ;lrj a}7s ul/ ;dGjo ug]{ k|of;
·          lghfdtL ;]jfdf ;?jf, j[lQljsf;, cjsf;,lgo"lQm Pj+ clen]v Joj:yfkg ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnon] CPA sf] ?kdf ;dGjosf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x .
·          k|To]s dGqfnon] dftxtsf ljefu / sfof{nox?sf] sfo{k|efjsf/L9+un] cl3 j9fpg If]qut a}7s, uf]i7L Pjd\ of]hgf / sfo{of]hgf dfk{mt ;dGjosf/L
e"ldsf .
·          of]hgf k|lqmofsf] ;Gbe{df /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u
·          lhNnf txsf sfof{nox?df k|=lh=c=n] ;dGjo ug]{ u/]sf] .
·          ljleGg ;ldltx? /x]sf
·          ljleGg lgb{]]lzsf, lbUbz{g cjnDag
·          k|jQmfsf] Joj:yf, kmf]sn KjfOG6 / gf]8n clws[t
·          ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{÷k|]; lj1lKt / ;"rgf .
             o;/L ;f+u7lgs lqmofsnfksf] ;+of]hg, p4]Zo nIo / sfo{qmd ;+of]hg,Joj:yfksLo sfo{sf] ;f/,lg/Gt/ sfo{sf nflu o:tf Joj:yf ;dGjosf/L e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]tfklg g]kfndf MDG]]]] ÚS eg]sf] of]hgf cfof]usf] sfd xf] elg cGo lgsfo klG5g',k"0f{ lgIf]k0f :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnosf] sfd xf] elg cGo ljifout dGqfnox? kl5 kg'{, hg;+Vof lzIff x]g]{ sfo{ lzIff Pj+ :jf:Yo b'j} dGqfnoaf6 x'g', NGO / ;f] sfddf bf]xf]/f]kgf b]lvbf ;dGjosf] cj:yf sdhf]/ b]lvG5 . k|efjsf/L ;dGjo sfod ug{ lgDg pkfo cjnDag ug'{ pko'Qm x'g]5 M–
·       :ki6 sfo{ljj/0fsf] Joj:yf ug]{,
·       p4]Zo / gLltdf :ki6tf Nofpg],
·       sfo{ If]qsf] bf]xf]/f]kgf x6fpg]
·       ;~rf/ zLksf] ljsf; u/L lgoldt ;"rgf k|jfx k|0ffnL :yfkgf
·       g]t[Tj z}nLsf] ljsf; -Joj:yfksLo bIftf / ljZjf;lgotf_
·       lgoldt e]63f6, a}7s / ;ldIff ug]{ Feed back lng],
·       k|lzIf0f u'gf;f] ;'g'jfO{ ug]{
·       cfk;L cGt/;DaGw
·       tflnd k|fKt hgzlQm Pj+ hgzlQmsf] hfgsf/L /fVg]
·       >f]t / ;fwgsf] Joj:yf ug]{ ÷cflb .

-!&_   /fHo ;~rfngsf nflu ;/sf/n] zlQm k|fKt ug]{ cfwf/x? s] s] x'g < g]kfndf tL cfwf/x?sf] cj:yfsf ;Gbe{df df}lns ljj]rgf ug'{xf];\ .
pQ/ M– /fHo eg]sf] hgtfsf] k|lts xf] . /fHo cd"t{ lg/fsf/ :yfoL / ;Dk|e'Qf  ;DkGg ;+:yf xf] . o;sf nflu lglZrt e"–efu, hg;+Vof,;/sf/,;fj{ef}d;Qf,cGt/fli6«o dfGotfx? cfjZos tTjsf ?kdf rflxG5 .
        ;/sf/ eg]sf] hgtfsf] OR5f kl/k"lt{sf nflu /fHo Joj:yf dfk{mt zf;g ;~rfng ug]{ lgsfo xf] . ;s"+lrt cy{df ;/sf/ eg]sf] sfo{kflnsf xf] eg] Jofks cy{df sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf,Gofokflnsf xf] . oL # j6f s'/fx? /fHonfO{ cl:tTj k|bfg ug{ geO{ gx'g] tTj x'g\ .
        /fHo / ;/sf/df s] km/s 5 <
                                  /fHo                            ;/sf/
        zlQm               df}lns / ;jf]{Rr                    ;Lldt / k|bQ
        :j?k                    Ps}                              ljleGg
        cfsf/                  Jofks                             ;fgf]
        u'0f                     efjgfTds                          k|ToIf
        ;Dk|e'Qf                  /xG5                             /xFb}g
        lj/f]w                     x'b}+g                             x'g;S5
        :yfloTj                  :yfoL                         kl/jt{g eO/xG5
              dflysf] km/s x]bf{ ;/sf/n] zlQm k|bfg ug]{ cfwf/ sfo{kflnsf, Joj:yflksf, Gofokflnsfsf cltl/Qm ;+j}wflgs lgsfox?, P]g lgod, k|x/L -;'/Iff lgsfo_, lghfdtL ;]jf, ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfg, ;/sf/L ;~rf/ sf]if / ;fj{hlgs ;]jf ljt/0f k|0ffnLsf] ;du|tfsf] cfwf/df hgtfaf6 kfpF5g . g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# sf] wf/f #& cg';f/ sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ k|fKt dlGqkl/ifb g} …;/sf/Ú xf]]]] . ;f]xL cg';f/ zlQm k|fKt ug]{ cfwf/sf] cj:yf b]xfo cg';f/ ePsf] lrq0f ul/Psf] 5 .
ljwflosf
             
·       sfg"g lgdf{0f–hgtf4f/f dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df lgjf{lrt ljwflosfdf sfg"g                   lgdf{0f ug]{ zlQm g]kfndf ;d]t k|fKt 5 .
·       ah]6 kfl/t–  hgtfsf] /sd hgtfdf ;dfg 9+un],k|efjsf/L 9+un] ljj/0f ug]{                 zlQm, jh]6 kfl/t ug]{ k|fKt
·       gLlt tyf sfo{qmd – ;/sf/sf] jflif{s gLlt tyf sfo{qmd b]z / hgtfsf] lxt 
cg'?k eP jf gePsf] d"Nof+sg ul/ kfl/t ug]{ zlQm k|fKt 5 .
·       r'gfj– hgtfsf] dtaf6 r'gfjaf6 r'lgP/ cfPsf k|ltlglwx?nfO{ hgzlQm k|fKt 5 .

sfo{kflnsf
·       sfg"g sfof{Gjog
·       zflGt ;'/Iff / cdgrog
·       ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;~rfng
·       j}b]lzs ;DaGw
·       gLlt th"[{df
Gofokflnsf
·          ljjfb ;dfwfg
·          sfg"gsf] JofVof
·          Goflos k'g/fjnf]sg
·          dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f
    pk/f]Qm zlQm ;/sf/n] /fHok|0ffnL leqsf] lgsfox?af6 kfpg] sfg"gL cfwf/df g} lsl6Psf] x'G5 . o; jfx]s oL cfwf/x?df /fli6«o :jfy{sf] k|j4{g,zflGt / :yfloTj, ;fdflhs dof{bf Gofo, ;Ddfg, ul/jL, lbuf] ljsf;sf] If]qdf ;d]t zlQm k|fKt ug]{ kxn /fHo ;~rfng ug{ ;/sf/n] u/] cfly{s,;fdflhs pTyfgsf nflu bx|f] pkl:ylt / plrt jftfj/0f ;/sf/af6 tof/ x'g] lyof] .
                                        
-!*_   ljleGg cf/f]x cj/f]x kf/ub}{ jt{dfg cj:yfdf cfOk'u]sf] g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf /x]sf ;d:ofx? pNn]v ub}{ ;f]af6 l;lh{t k|efjx? pNn]v u/L jt{dfg cj:yfdf lglhs/0f gLlt, s/f/ ;]jf, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, lghL If]qsf]ljsf;sf qmddf x/]s lgsfosf] e"ldsf :ki6 kfl/Psf] x'Fbf dflysf ;d:ofx? Pjd\ k|efjx?jf6 d'Qm kfg{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf s] s;/L ;'wf/ ug{ pko'Qm 7fGg'x'G5, cfk\mgf] cg'ejsf] cf wf/df pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
       
pQ/M– ælghfdtL ;]jf, ;d:of / k|efj Pj+d ;'wf/sf pkfoÆ
lghfdtL ;]jf
        lghfdtL ;]jf ;/sf/sf] :yfoL c+u xf] . of] lglZrt sfg"gL, ;}4flGts / g}lts dfGotfdf cl8u x'G5 . o;af6 ;Dkfbg x'g] sfo{x? sfg"gL clwsf/af6 lsl6Psf] x'G5 . of] h:tf] ;'s} /fhg}lts Joj:yf ePsf] d'n'sx?df klg ;~rfng ePsf] x'G5 . lghfdtL ;]jfnfO{ gful/s ;]jf jf ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] gfdn] klg lrlgG5 . ;fdfGo ?kdf ;/sf/  cGt/utsf sd{rf/LnfO{ lghfdtL ;]jf eGg] ul/G5 .

         The civil service is a professional body of officials, permanent paid and skilled.
                                   lghfdtL ;]jf




               s]Gb|Lo ;/sf/df                       Jofj;flos lgi7f / hg;d'bfosf] ;]jf
        sfo{/t u}/ ;}lgs clws[tx?                   k|lt ;dlk{t sd{rf/L ;d"x

        ;/sf/sf] gLlt Pj+d sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;fwg lghfdtL ;]jf xf] .
        ;du|df eGg'kbf{ lghfdtL ;]jf eGgfn],
-      u}/ ;}lgs ;/sf/L sd{rf/L
-       Merit Based Selection System
-       Career as Profession
-       Job Security And Recognition
-       Career Opportunity
-      sfg"gL cfwf/x? . sd{rf/L k|zf;g OsfO{
-      lglZrt cfwf/ / k|s[of Pj+ lgikIftf ePsf] ;]jf eGg] a'lemG5 .

jt{dfg cj:yfdf ;d:of / k|efjx?

   ;d:of   
k|efj
·       cfjZos eGbf 7'nf] / vlr{nf]    
·       cfk'mn] ug'{ gkg]{ sfd u/]sf] 5
·                   /fhg}lts g]t[Tjsf] Wofg k|zf;lgs k|s[ltsf] sfddf uPsf] 5 .                 
·       pknJwLd'ns eGbf k|s[ofd"ns
·                   dflyNnf] txsf] cfb]z / lgb]{zaf6 ;~rflnt
·       lhDd]jf/L 5l/Psf]        
·       k|f]T;fxg / k|]/0ffsf] sld  
·       lg0f{osf] tx j9L / hl6n 5
·       ph'/L ;'Gg] lgsfo gfd dfqsf]    
·       cfly{s cg'zf;g lxgtf   ÷e|i6frf/
·       clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg gfd dfqsf]   
·       cg'udg k|efjsf/L 5}g   
·       sd k|efjsf/L / kmnbfoL x'g g;s]sf]
·       cgfjZos j9L jf]lemnf]
·                   b]znfO{ ult / lbzf k|bfg ug]{ gLlt lgwf{/0fdf jflG5t lhDd]jf/L /fhg}lts txsf] gk'Ug'
·                   sfo{ljlw pNn+3g u/]df b08 lbg] t/ pknJwL xfl;n gx'Fbf s]xL gx'g]
·                   tNnf] tx l;h{gzLntf b]vfpg] cj;/af6 al~rt
·       pQ/bfloTj x'g g;Sg'
·       dgf]an / pTk|]/0ff 36]sf]
·       l9nfO{nfO{ a9fjf
·       bjfjnfO{ j]jf:tf÷r]tgf ljsf; gePsf]
·       ;fwg / zlQmsf] b'?kof]u
·       ;'zf;gsf] dd{ dfyL k|xf/
·       gfd dfqsf] sfof{Gjog    
                                  
jt{dfgdf x/]s lgsfosf] e"ldsf :ki6 kfl/Psf] x'Fbf oL ;d:of / k|efjaf6 d'Qm kfg{ lgDg jdf]lhd ;'wf/ ug{ pko'Qm 7fGb5'M–
;'wf/sf pkfox?
·       /fhgLlt / k|zf;g aLr ;Ldf /]vf sf]l/ sfo{If]q lgwf{/0f
·       ;/sf/L k|zf;gsf If]qdf lghL If]qdf k|of]u ul/g] Joj:yfkg k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ubf{ kmnbfoL x'g]   b]lvG5 .
·       ;/sf/L If]qsf] Ifdtf / >f]t ;fwg ;Lldt /x]sf]n] ;/sf/L / u}x|;/sf/L If]qaf6 ul/g] sfd       5'6\ofpg Jojxfl/s x'G5 .
·       sfo{;Dkfbg cfb]z lgb]{z eGbf k|f]T;fxg / k|]/0ffnfO{ j9L k|of]u ug]{ .
·       k|zf;g hgtfsf] OR5f / cf+sfIffk|lt j9L ;+j]bgzLn agfOg'kb{5 .
·       lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ ;se/ j9L ljs]Gb|Ls/0f ug]{ .
·       lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;/nLs/0f .
 s;/L <                                       
·       sfo{ljefhg :ki6tf
·       5l/tf] ;+u7g lgdf{0f
·       lhDd]jf/L / sfo{ljj/0f
·       ;]jfu|fxL k|ltsf] bfloTj lgjf{x                    
·       e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f .
·        Out Sourcing/contracting
·       /fhg}lts x:tIf]kaf6 6f9f
·       clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg
·       ph'/L ;'Gg] k|j[lQ÷k4ltsf] ljsf;

pk/f]Qmfg';f/sf] ;'wf/ ul/Pdf lghfdtL ;]jfsf] Effective Implementation, Improved client, Team building and mission oriented, Efficiency, Corruption control h:tf kl/0ffd k|fKt x'g uO{ lghfdtL ;]jf h:tf] ;'s} cf/f]x cj/f]xdf ;d]t ;d:of d'Qm x'g]5 .
-!(_   g]kfnsf] ;/sf/L If]qdf ljZjs} sd tnj ePsf]n] o'jfx? ljb]lzPsf eGg] ;'lgG5 . k|:t't ;Gbe{nfO{ dgg ub}{ o'jfx?sf] cfsif{0f ;/sf/L ;]jfdf kfg{ tnj ;'ljwf lgwf{/0f ubf{ s] s:tf s'/fdf Vofn ubf{ pko'Qm x'G5, ;f/ule{t pkfo pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
  pQ/M– ætnj, tnj ;'ljwf lgwf{/0f ubf{ Vofn ug'{kg]{ pkfox?Æ
        tnj
       lglbi6 p4]Zo k'/f ug{sf nflu lgod sfg"gsf] clwgdf /lx :yflkt ;+u7gdf sfdbf/ sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ lbOg] kfl/>lds Pjd eQfnfO{ tnj ;'ljwf elgG5 . dflg;n] cfk\mgf] >d s'g} klg ;+u7gnfO{ jf JolQmnfO{ ljqmL u/]jfkt k|fKt ug]{ d]xgt g} tnj jf kfl/>lds xf] .
               csf]{ zAbdf, sd{rf/Lsf] ;do, >d, ;Lk, of]Uotf, cg'ej / hf]lvdsf nflu lbOg] Ifltk"lt{ tnj xf] . of] ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] pks/0f klg xf] . /f]huf/bftf / /f]huf/ jLrsf] cfk;L ;xdltn] slt tnj lbg] eGg] ljifodf lglZrt ub{5 .
         lghfdlt ;]jfdf tnj ;'ljwf
        g]kfnsf] ;/sf/L ;]jfdf ljZjs} sd tnj ePsf] sf/0fn] o'jfx? ljb]lzPsf eGg] s'/f] s]xL xbdf l7s klg xf] / a]l7s klg xf] . o;nfO{ b]xfo cg';f/ x]/f} .
        lsg l7s <
-      :ki6 ;/sf/L gLlt gePsf] -k6s k6s cfof]u u7g_
-      tnj k'g/fjnf]sg xr'jfsf] e/df x'g]
-      cfjZostf eGbf a9L sd{rf/Lsf sf/0f ckof{Kt tnj
-      cfDbfgL j9fP/ ;'ljwf j9fpg] k|j[lQ gx'g'
-      e|i6frf/sf sf/0f ;bfrf/Lsf];dfhdf sd dxTj
-      k]–sldzgsf] ;'emfj k|lt j]jf:tf
-      lghfdtL / ;+:yfgsf] tnj ;'ljwf c;dfg
-      lghL If]qsf] eGbf sd tnj
-      ahf/ d"No x]bf{ cfh tnj ef]nL pwf/f] .
        lsg a]l7s <
-      nf]s ;]jfsf] hl6n k/LIff k|0ffnLsf] sf/0f tnjn] eGbf cGo sf/0fn] o'jfsf] Wofg glvlrPsf]
-      kf7\oqmd Ps]8]lds 5,Jojxf/af6 6f9f ePsf]n] cgfsif{0f
-      tnj lgwf{/0f ubf{ :yfoL ;+/rgf 5, h;n] k|To]s # jif{df ahf/ d"No cg'?k tnj ;dfof]hg ub{5 .
-      tnjsf cltl/Qm ljleGg ;'ljwfx? 5g, t;y{ M tnjs} sf/0f ljb]lzPsf eGg
ldNb}g .
dfyL rrf{ ul/Pcg';f/ o"jfx? ljb]lzPsf tnj sd ePs} sf/0f jf cGo sf/0f h] ePklg tnj lgwf{/0f ubf{ lgDg s'/fdf Vofn /fVg' kb{5 .
·       ;+u7gsf] Ifdtf M–– Ifdtf klxNofpg]÷cy{tGqdf kfg]{ k|efjnfO{ ljrf/ ug]{ .
·       ahf/ d"No M kl/jf/sf] vr{ wfGg]÷ahf/ d"No cg's'n kl/jt{g ug]{ .
·       >dsf] dfu / cfk"tL{ M–– sfd vf]Hg] JolQm w]/} eP yf]/}÷j9L >dzLk / of]Uotf rflxg] eP jl9 tnj lbg] .
·       ;+u7gsf] bjfj lbg] Ifdtf M–– ;+u7g j9L k|efjsf/L eP j9L tnj, sd k|efjsf/L eP sd bjfj x'Fbf tnj lgwf{/0f ubf{ of] kIfnfO{ Wofg lbg] .
·       rngrlNtsf] tnj M–– c? ;+:yfn] s] slt lbPsf 5g ;f]xL cg'kftdf lbg]]] .
·       pTkfbsTj M–– yk tnjn] pTkfbsTjdf s] k|efj ub{5 .
·       ;/sf/L lg0f{o M–– cGo ;+:yfn] ;/sf/L ;+u7gn] lbP ;/x dfq lbg] .

       o;sf cnfjf tnj lgwf{/0f ubf{ Need, work, Organizational culture multidimensional efforts, efficiency promoter, National Economic scenario, social Aspects, Personality Need ;d]t ljrf/ ug'{kg]{ x'G5 eg] csf]{tk{m Performance based pay klg jt{dfgdf pko'Qm x'g] b]lvG5 . ;fy} tnj lgwf{/0f ubf{ Internal, External  / Individual Equity nfO{ ;d]t ;+jf]wg x'g'kb{5 .
       lgisz{M
        pk/f]Qm s'/f ljrf/u/L tnj lgwf{/0f ul/Pdf sd{rf/Lx? sfd k|lt Motivate x'g], ;+u7gsf] Goal and objectives k"/f ug{ ;xh x'g] Working culture change u/fpg]sf cltl/Qm sfddf k|lt:kwf{ j9\g u} pQ/bfloTj ;d]t j9fpg uO{ lglZrt xbdf o"jfx? sd tnjsf sf/0f ljb]lzPsf ePklg ;f] qmdnfO{ /f]sL ;/sf/L ;]jfdf o"jfx?sf] cfsif{0f a9fpg ;d]t tnjn] d4t ub{5 .
-@)_        aGb j[lQk|0ffnL eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf kmfObf / j]kmfO{bf pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
pQ/ M– æ aGba[lQ k|0ffnL,kmfObf / j]kmfO{bfÆ   
       j[lQk|0ffnL
        j[lQ k|0ffnL eg]sf] k]zfut j}olQms pGglt ePsf] k|0ffnL xf] . cy{k"0f{ hLjgofkgsf nflu s'g} Joj;fo leq /x]sf] jftfj/0f jf cj;/ xf] . o;df kof{Kt ;'ljwf, j9'jfsf] kof{Kt cj;/, tfnLdsf] cj;/ / Merit System nfO{ :jLsfl/Psf] x'g'kb{5 .
j[lQ k|0ffnL




v'Nnfj[lQ              aGbj[lQ
-;]jf aflx/af6_         -;]jf leqaf6_
        jGbj[lQ k|0ffnL
        ;]jfsf] lglZrt ljGb'df k|j]zsf] tx x'g] ub{5 . lglZrt kbx? dfq v'nf k|ltof]lutfaf6 k|lt:kwL{ pDd]bjf/x? k|j]z u/fpg] / tL kbx? eGbf dfyL ;]jf leqaf6} sfo{ pTs[i6 ePsf sd{rf/Lx?jf6 lgwf{l/t cfwf/ cGtu{t kbf]Gglt ug]{ cj;/ k|bfg u/L ;f] k|s[ofaf6 j[lQsf] dflyNnf] l;9Ldf k'Ug] u'~hfo;sf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ lsl;dsf] j[lQ k|0ffnLnfO{ aGbj[lQ k|0ffnL elgG5 .
               tNnf] txdf ;]jf k|j]z u/]sf sd{rf/Lx?jf6 g} dflyNnf] kbx? k"lt{ x'G5g . ;]jf k|j]zsf nflu Go"gtd / clwstd pd]/ tf]lsPsf] x'G5 . o:tf] k|0ffnLdf ;]jf jf ;d"x s} nflu lj1fkg ul/G5 / lgo"lQm lbOG5 . xfd|f] ;Gbe{df lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] kmfon j9'jf / cfGtl/s j9'jfnfO{ lng ;lsG5 .
       o; k|0ffnLsf] dfGotfM
·       o"jf k|ltefjfgnfO{ z'?sf vf; kb÷txdf dfq egf{ lng]
·       dWod / pRr txdf ;]jf aflx/sf nfO{ /f]s nufpg]
·       j[lQ leq k|j]z ul/;s]kl5 ljsf; / tflnd h:tf Ifdtf ljsf;sf sfo{x? ub}{ hfg]
·       ljleGg vfn] k"jf{u|xaf6 ;]jfnfO{ cnu /fVg] .
kmfObfx?M
·       of]Uo JolQmn] kbf]Gglt kfpg]
·       sd{rf/Lsf] j[lQ ljsf;sf] :ki6 sfo{ky b]lvg]]]]]]]]]]]
·       ;d'xefj, pTk|]/0ff / dgf]jndf ;sf/fTds k|efj
·       sd{rf/Ldf ul/Psf] nufgLsf] pkof]u x'g]
·       ;s'+lrt ljz]if1tf eGbf km/flsnf] ljz]if1tfsf] ljsf;
·       tflnd, egf{ / ljsf;sf] nfut sd x'g]
·       Joj;flos ljsf;sf] dfu{ ;xh x'g]
        j]kmfO{bfx?M
·       d]3fjL k|ltef cfsif{0f ug{ g;lsg]
·       kbsf] sfof{jZostf eGbf JolQmd'vL
·       sd k|lt:kwf{÷hfuL/ ;Lldt JolQmsf] k]jf x'g]]]]]
·       j9'jfdf Threat gx'g] x'Fbf sfo{;Dkfbgdf–xf; x'g]
·       h]i7tf dfq x]bf{ of]Uo k|ltef aflxl/g ;Sg]]]]]]]]     
·       l;h{gzLntf / cg';Gwfg sfo{ gx'g]
        lgisz{M
               jGbj[lQ k|0ffnLsf] kmfObf j]kmfObf h] ePklg sd{rf/Lsf] pTkfbsTj j[l4, sfd st{Jodf kf/+ut, ;u7gsf] VoftL j9fpg, pkef]u / ljsf; ug{, Promotion / Progress k|fKtL ug{ of] k|0ffnL /fd|f] x'G5 .
-@!_    g]kfndf xfn;Dd u7g ePsf k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]usf] gfd pNn]v ub}{ k6s k6s o:tf cfof]u s] slt sf/0faf6 u7g ePsf] xf] h:tf] tkfFO{nfO{ nfU5 :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ .
       pQ/M k|zf;g ;'wf/
        Administration reform is the artificial inducement of administration against resistance.
·       k|zf;lgs k|0ffnLsf] ;+/rgf, k|lqmof, Jojxf/, dgf]j[lQdf kl/jt{g Nofpg] k|lqmof
·       k|zf;g leq ljBdfg sld sdhf]/Lsf] klxrfg, ltgsf] sf/0fsf] lgbfg, ljZn]if0f, ;dfwfgsf] pkfosf] vf]hL / sfof{Gjog ug]{ kl/kf6L .
·       k|zf;g leq gljgtf / l;h{gfTdstfsf] k|j]z u/fpg / k|zf;lgs Ifdtf a9fpg     ul/G5 .
        ;'wf/sf] p4]ZoM
        ;+/rgfTds leGgtf, k]zfut ljlzi6tf, ;+:yfults/0f, Jojxf/pGd'vtf / k|lqmof k'g;+/rgfsf nflu÷/fhgLlt1,u|fxs,k|f1÷j'l4hLjL / k|zf;sx?jf6 core team       agfP/ k|zf;g ;'wf/ ul/G5 .
       xfn;Dd u7g ePsf cfof]ux?
       -!_    j'r sldzg– @))(–  Pd=Pg=, j'r
       -@_    k|zf;g k'gu{7g of]hgf cfof]u– @)!#– 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{
       -#_    k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u – @)@%–  j]bfgGb emf
       -$_    k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u– @)#@–    e]if axfb'/ yfkf
       -%_    pRr :t/Lo k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u– @)$*– lul/hf k|;fb sf]O/fnf
       -^_    k|zf;g k"g;+/rgf cfof]u– @)^$– kDkmf e';fn
       -&_    k|zf;g ;'wf/ ;'emfj ;ldlt– @)&!– sfzL/fh bfxfn
       k|zf;g ;'wf/sf sf/s
·        Political Change
·       cfly{s sf/0f
·       ;fdflhs ;f:s[lts sf/0f
·       k|zf;g cfk}m klg, k|zf;lgs sf/0f
·       jfXo sf/0fx?  
       @))& s} /fhg}lts kl/jt{gsf] sf/0f j'r sldzg b]lv 6+sk|;fb cfrfo{ cfof]un] ;Dd sfd u/]sf] kfOG5 . @)!& sf] /fhg}lts kl/jt{g kl5 @)@% sf] cfof]u /fhg}lts kl/jt{gsf ;fy ;fy} cfly{s / ;fdflhs ljsf;sf nflu u7g ePsf] kfOG5 . @)#@.## sf] cfof]u k|zf;lgs ;d:ofx? cf}NofO{ of]hgfj4 cfly{s ljsf; xfl;n ug]{ p4]Zoaf6 u7g ePsf] lyof] . @)$* sf] cfof]u eg] /fhg}lts kl/jt{g, pbf/jfbL ljZj cy{ Joj:Yffsf] k|efj, ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] ultnfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ u7g ePsf] kfOG5 . o;} u/L @)^$ sf] cfof]u klg /fhg}lts sf/0fsf cnfjf ;+3Lotfsf] ;jfndf u7g ePsf] kfOG5 eg] @)&! sf] cfof]u klg @)^$ em} /fhlgtLs Pjd\ ;+3Lotfs} ;jfndf u7g ePsf] xf] .
       ;+lIfKt sf/0fM
       cfrfo{ cfof]u M       ;fdGtL Joj:yfaf6 x's]{sf] k|zf;gnfO{ ?kfGt/0f– cfw'lgs jgfpg]
        Action oriented + Result Oriented agfpg] /x\of] . jt{dfg lghfdtL ;]jfsf Foundation.
       emf cfof]u M          ;+ljwfgsf] k|yd ;+zf]wg /fhg}lts sf/0f lyof] . ljsf; k|zf;g tyf                    cfly{s ;fdflhs ljsf;nfO{ k|fyldstf lbg'csf]{ sf/0f .
       yfkf cfof]u M         ;+ljwfgsf] bf]>f] ;+zf]wg k+rfotnfO{ lglj{sNkgf /fhg}lts sf/0f lyof]                  eg] ljsf; k|zf;gsf] ;'b[l9s/0f cfly{s sf/0f .
       sf]O/fnf cfof]u M     @)$^ sf] kl/jt{g -/fhg}lts_, gofF ;+ljwfgdf pbf/jfb + NPM sf] wf/0ff cfTd;ft . New institutional economic (cross cutting, issue, public choice, Bureau Maximizing Theory PR Pay) nfO{ cfTd;ft÷jfXo sf/0f .
       e';fn cfof]u M @)^@ sf] kl/jt{g kZrft . ;+3Lotfsf] dfdnfdf /fhg}lts sf/0f .
     sfzL/fh cfof]u M      jt{dfg kl/k|]Ifdf k|zf;gnfO{ s;/L cl3 a9fpg] / ;+3Lotfs} dfdnfn] /fhg}lts sf/0f .
       lgisz{M
              dfyL rrf{ u/LPsf sf/0fsf cnfjf ;+u7gfTds kIf, sfo{;/nLs/0f / ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] k|efjsfl/tf,sd{rf/L kIf, j[lQ Joj:yfkg / ;'ljwf, pTk|]/0ff,dgf]an, k|ltef knfog x'g /fSg] h:tf ;'wf/sf ljifox?sf sf/0fklg k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u u7g ePsf] xf] .

-@@_   ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj eGgfn] tkfO{ s] a'e\mg'x'G5 < g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjsf]  cjwf/0ff s;/L k|ltljlDjt ug]{ Joj:Yff ul/Psf] 5 :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ .  
pQ/M–  æ ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj / cjwf/0ffÆ 
       ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj
        pQ/lbg' kg]{ bfloTj pQ/bfloTj xf] . cfk\mgf] st{Josf] nflu lhDd]jf/L lng] s'/f xf] . s'g} klg sd{rf/Ln] cfk"mn] k|fKt u/]sf] clwsf/ / lhDd]jf/L cg'?k ;DkGg u/]sf sfd sf/jfxLnfO{ ;/f]sf/jfnf -u|fxs . jf]]; jf cGo_ k|lt pQ/bfoL hjfkmb]xL u/fpg' g} ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj xf] . o;n] ;/sf/ / lghfdtL sd{rf/Lsf] u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f ug]{, ;fj{hlgs ;]jfsf] lgk'0ftf / k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ub{5 .
        lhDd]jf/Ln] s;}sf] clwsf/ / st{Josf] ;+s]t ub{5 eg] pQ/bfloTjn] To:tf] clwsf/ / st{Josf] k|of]usf] l;nl;nfdf ul/Psf] sfdsf ;DaGwdf hjfkm lbg] bfloTj ;d]6]sf] x'G5 .
        ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj s] df lge{/ /xG5 <
·       /fhg}lts OR5fzlQm / k|ltj4tf
·       u0fgf ug{;lsg] sfo{;Dkfbg dfkb08
·       k|efjsfl/ ljlQo lgoGq0f / cg'zf;g
·       e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] pkfosf] ;lx sfof{Gjog
·       ljs]Gb|Ls/0f / clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg
·       sd{rf/Lx?df pRr dgf]jn / pTk|]/0ff
·       JolQm ;+u7g / ;dfhsf] lxtsf] Plss/0f
·       :ki6 ?kdf kl/eflift lhDd]jf/Lx?
·       lg0f{odf kf/blz{tf
·       /fd|f] ;fj{hlgs cg'zf;g / ;f]w sfo{ljlw
·        :jtGq / k|efjsf/L Ombudsman
·       k|lt:kwL{ / k|dfjsf/L vf]h klqsf
·       /fhgLlt / k|zf;gsf] /fd|f] ;DaGw
·       v'nfkg / ;"rgf k|fKtL Joj:yf
        o;sf cnfjf g]kfndf pQ/bfloTjsf] ;DaGwdf dGqLx? cfk\mgf sfdsf nflu JolQmut ?kdf k|=d=/ Joj:yflksf ;+;bk|lt pQ/bflo x'g], dGqfnosf] sfd;Fu ;DalGwt sd{rf/Lsf] pQ/bfloTj dGqL;Dd /xg], ;lrj nufotn] dGqLaf6 k|Tofof]lht clwsf/ adf]lhd sfd ug'{kg]{ Joj:yf 5 eg] ;+;bLo ;s[otf x]bf{ ;+;b -Joj:yflksf_ k|lt klg pQ/bflo x'g'kg]{ gofF b[[li6sf]0f b]lvG5 .
        dGqLsf] cj:yf / kl/efiff x]bf{ o;sf] cjwf/0f lgDg sf/0faf6 cfPsf] dfGg ;lsG5 .
·       k|zf;gdf kf/blz{tf sfod ug{
·       ;fj{hlgs lg0f{ox? l56f] / ;lx 9+uaf6 ug{
·       zlQm / ;fwgsf] b'?kof]u /f]Sg
·       lg0f{odf hg;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{
·       sd{rf/Lsf] Integrity a9fpg
·       sfo{;Dkfbg bIftf a9fpg
·       hgtfsf] OR5f ljk/Ltsf] sfo{df /f]s nufpg
·       csd{0otf / Mal Administration /f]Sg
·       lg0f{osf] j}wtf sfod ug{
·       e|i6frf/ lgoGq0f ug{
·       k|zf;gk|lt hgljZjf; j9fpg, ;+j]bgzLntf j9fpg
        lgisz{M
               dfyLsf] cjwf/0ff, cj:yf / kl/efiff x]bf{ ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjnfO{ cem :ki6 kfg{ gLlt lgod th{'df ubf{ g} sf] k|lt pQ/bflo x'g] kl/eflift ug]{, pQ/bfoL x'g] ;d"x 5fGg'sf] p4]Zo :ki6 ug]{ jf s] k|fKt ug{ vf]h]sf] kl/eflift ug]{, /0fgLlt lgwf{/0f, pko'Qm ;fwg k|of]u÷u|x0f, ;fwgx?sf] ljlgof]hg / Evaluating the accountability ug{ ;s]df ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTjnfO{ cem ;'b[9 ug{ ;lsG5 .


-@#_    l6Kk0fL n]Vg'xf]; .
        -s_ ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhL M
        ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhL b'O{kIf jLr ul/Psf] Tof] lnlvt b:tfj]h xf], h;n] d'VotofM tf]lsPsf] ;dofjlwsf] Joj;fo, k|zf;g jf ljifoj:t' ;DalGw JofVof u5{ .
               Aoj:yfkg kIf / sfdbf/ -o'lgog_ sf k|ltlglw aLr x'g] ;d"xut k|lqmof jf jftf{nfk k4lt g} ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhL xf] . o;df b'j} kIf cfk\mgf] c8fgdf b[9 x'G5 . of] ;fd"lxs ?kdf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug]{ Ps Jojl:yt k|lqmof xf] . kIfsf/x?sf] lxtsf cfwf/df ;dofg's"n kl/jt{g ug{ klg ;lsg] of] k4ltdf ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t l4kIfLo dfdnfsf jf/]df 5nkmn ul/G5 . of] jfWotf / cfjZostfsf]  pkh xf] .

        ljifo If]qx?M
·       sfdbf/x?sf] ljleGg dfux? tnj ;'ljwf, j[lQ ljsf;, cGofo, ;]jfzt{, sfo{jftfj/0f cflb
·       sfo{;do,ljbf,;'ljwf,Joj;flos :jf:Yo / ;'wf/sf ljifox? .
·       of] ljifo cf}wf]lus If]qaf6 cfPsf]n] Joj:yfks–sfdbf/ aLrsf] ;f}bf elgPsf] xf] . xfnM x/]s If]qdf o;sf] k|of]u .
        dxTjM
        ;fd"lxs ;f}bfjfhLn] gofF ;Dks{ :yfkgf u/fpg,gofF pkfosf] vf]hL ug{, pTkfbgsf] lg/Gt/tf sfod ug{ -;f}bfaf6 k|fKtL x'g] x'Fbf_, pQ/bfloTj ls6fg ug{, ;+u7gsf] VoftL j9fpg, ;d:ofsf] plrt lg/fs/0f u/fpg dxTj /fVb5 .
        pk/f]Qm dxTj ePtfklg xfd|f] ;Gbe{df k|ltlglwTjdf ljjfb, k]zfut dof{bf eGbf /fhgLlts :jfy{, ;fd"lxs eGbf JolQmut,;Demf}tfdf ;+3if{sf] vf]hL, Ph]08fdf sd u[xsfo{sf sf/0f of] dxTjlxg aGg uPsf] 5 . o;df ;kmn g]t[Tj, Joj;flos l:ylt, sfo{jftfj/0f a'e\mg] JolQm jf ;d"x rog ug{ ;s]df of] k|efjsf/L e} lgZro g} sfdbf/sf] xslxt u/L pTkfbsTj j[l4df ;d]t of]ubfg k'¥ofp5 .
v=    tYof+s eGgfn] s] j'‰g'x'G5 < ;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf o;sf] s:tf] dxTj /xG5 <
pQ/ M— tYof+s zJb Latin efiffsf] status jf O6flnog efiffsf] Statista jf hd{g statistik af6  pTklt ePsf] xf] . o;sf] cy{ /fHo jf ;/sf/ xf] .
By statistics, we mean aggregates of facts, affected is a marked extent by multiply of causes, numerically expressed, enumerated of estimated according to reasonable standards of accuracy collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose and placed in relation to each other.
;fj{hlgs Joj:yfkgdf dxTj M
·         lg0f{o ug{sf] nflu d"ne"t cfwf/ k|bfg ug{,
·         gLlt, of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd lgdf{0f Pjd\ sfof{Gjog ug{,
·         ;/sf/sf] pknJwL dfkg tyf ;f] sf] d"Nof+sg ug{,
·         cfof]hgf÷sfo{qmdsf] pknAwL Pjd\ l:ylt af]w u/L cfjZos lgb]{zg lbg
·         ;/sf/n] u/]sf] sfd sf/jfxL af/] hgtfnfO{ ;'–;"lrt ug]{,
·         k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{,
·         b]zsf] oyfy{ l:ylt af]w ug{ / ;/f]sf/jfnfaf6 k[i7kf]if0f lnO{ ;'wf/ ug{,
·         gLlt of]hgf tyf sfo{qmddf b]lvPsf sld sdhf]/Lx? ;dodf ;'wf/ u/L ;kmn kfg{,
·         efjL of]hgfx?df ;'wf/ ug{,
·         j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|fKt ug{sf nflu ljZjf;gLotf lbnfpg
·         cfjZos k|df0fsf] ?kdf k|:t't ug{ .
-@$_   g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf ;~rf/ bjfP/ jf l7s;Fu kfngf gu/]sf]n] k|zf;gn] jfl~5t pknJwL xfl;n gu/]sf] elgG5, k|zf;gdf ;~rf/sf] dxTj bzf{pb} o;/L bjfP/ jf 7Ls;Fu kfngf gul/Pdf ;~rf/sf sf/0f k|zf;gdf kg{ hfg] k|efj pNn]v ub}{ 7Ls;Fu kfngf ug]{ pkfox? a'Fbfut ?kdf pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
    pQ/ M–  æk|zf;g ;~rf/,g]kfndf k|efj / ;'emfjÆ
        k|zf;gdf ;~rf/
        ;~rf/ dfgjLo ;DaGwsf] cleGg c+u xf] . h;/L zl//sf nflu sf]lzsfsf] cfjZostf kb{5 To;} u/L ;+u7gsf nflu ;~rf/ ;Dk|]if0f x'g'kb{5 . of]hgf ;+u7g,g]t[Tj, dfgj ;+zfwg ljsf; / lgoGq0fsf nflu ;~rf/ ;f/tTj xf] .
Ø b'O{ kIf jLr ;"rgf cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ sfo{
Ø ;~rf/, ;"rgf, tYof+s tyf hfgsf/L k|jfx ug]{ t/Lsf tyf k|yf
Ø Joj:yfkg k|lqmofsf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ kIf
Ø cy{sf] ;femfkg jf JolQmx?sf] ;femf cg'ej
Ø cy{sf] x:tfGt/0f / a'emfO{
Ø ;du| ;~rf/ Joj:yfkg
        g]kfnsf] k|zf;gdf ;~rf/ bjfP/ jf l7s;Fu kfngf gu/]sf]n] k|zf;gn] jfl~5t pknJwL gug'{sf sf/0f,
Ø ;~rf/nfO{ lg/Gt/ >[+vnfsf] ?kdf glnOg'
Ø ;~rf/ ubf{ ;dosf] Vofn gul/g] x'Fbf of] :jtM bA5 / ;dodf gk'Ubf 7Ls;Fu kfngf x'Fb}g
Ø ;~rf/ ubf{ eflifs lSni6tfsf sf/0f l7s;Fu kfngf x'b}g, bA5,
Ø ;~rf/ ubf{ :ki6tfnfO{ Wofg lbg] obfsbf dfq kfOG5
Ø pko'Qm dfWodsf] 5gf}6 gul/gfn] bA5 jf l7s;Fu kfngf x'b}g     
Ø ;~rf/ k|fo h;f] PstkmL{ x'G5 .
        ;~rf/sf] dxTjM
Ø of]hgf th"{dfsfnflu ;"rgf tYo Pjd cfsF8fsf] ;+sng ug{
Ø Go"gtd nfutdf clwstd pTkfbg ug{
Ø ;dGjosf nflu pTs[i7 ;~rf/ x'g} kb{5
Ø ;xL lg0f{osf nflu tYofFs ;+sngfy{
Ø sd{rf/LnfO{ clek|]l/t, lgb]{lzt Pjd ;+ul7t ug{
Ø ;u7gfTds lgoGq0f u/]/ ljrng, q'6L yfxf kfO{ To;sf] k'g/fj[lQ /f]Sg
Ø k|efjsf/L ;]jf;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg
Ø clwsf/ / bfloTjsf] lgwf{/0f ug{
Ø ;'zf;gsf] cfwf/e"t tTj kf/blz{tfsf] cfwf/
Ø cfw'lgs Joj:yfkgsf] dxfgzlQm

        bjfP/ jf l7s;Fu kfngf gul/Pdf k|zf;gdf kg{ hfg] k|efj
Ø k|zf;gsf] sfddf ultzLntf cfpb}g
Ø k|Zf;gdf of]hgf,;+u7g, lgoGq0f, ;dGjo h:tf s'/fdf c;/
Ø ;xL ;dodf ;xL lg0f{o ug{ jfwf kg{ hfG5
Ø unt ;"rgf k}mng hfg] ;Defjgf /xG5
Ø tf]8 d/f]8 ;"rgf dfq k|fKt x'g ;S5
Ø cg'dfgsf] e/df k|of]u ubf{ :jfy{ hf]l8g ;S5
Ø cfk\mgf] cg'ej, k|ltlqmof k|:tfjsf] ?kdf k7fpFbf ;d]t cy{xLg x'g]
Ø lr8lr8fx6sf] ;Defjgf /xG5
Ø cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sgdf jfwf kg{ hfG5
Ø grfFlxbf] s'/fx? k}mng ;S5
       7Ls;Fu kfngf ug]{ pkfox? M    
Ø lnlvt ;~rf/sf] k|of]u ;dod} ug]{
Ø tTsfn gubf{ ulDe/ ;+s6 cfpg] eP df}lvs ;~rf/sf] k|of]u ug]{
Ø ;~rf/  dfyLjf6 cfb]zsf] ?kdf tn ug]{ / tnsf] s'/f klg ;'gjfO{ ug]{ -Two way communication_
Ø eflifs kIfnfO{ dgg u/L ;+Dk|]lift ug]{
Ø ldtAooL k|lqmofsf] cjnDag÷;'zf;gsf] dd{ dfyL Wofg lbg]
Ø k[i7kf]if0fnfO{ k|fyldstf
Ø sd{rf/LnfO{cfjZos tfnLd lbg]
Ø ;Da4 kIfsf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf a9fpg]
Ø cfk;L ;dGjodf lj:tf/ cflb
        pk/f]Qm cfwf/df ;~rf/ u/LPdf ;~rf/ bjfpg klg ;lsb}g / kfngf e} k|zf;gnfO{ ultzLn agfpg phf{ k|fKt x'G5 .
-@%_    ah]6 eg]sf] s] xf] < o;sf] p4]Zo k|i6\ofpb} ljleGg qmd kf/ ub}{ g]kfnsf] jh]6n] xfn cfP/ u/]sf] k|ultx?sf] ljZn]if0f ug'{xf];\ .
        pQ/ M–  æah]6,p4]Zo / xfnsf] k|ultÆ
         The budget is a fiscal plan by which expenditure be balanced against income.
        jh]6 Pp6f cfly{s pks/0f xf], h;df b'n{e ;fwgnfO{ clwstd nfe xffl;n ug]{ u/L ljlgof]hg u/LG5 . jh]6 Pp6f /fhgLlts pks/0f xf] h;df k|fKt >f]t / ;fwgaf6 s'g If]qdf s;n] slt b:t'/ ;]jf k|fKt ug]{ eGg] s'/fsf] ljjfb ;dfwfg ul/G5 . ah]6 Pp6f ;fdflhs cf}hf/ xf] h;df ;d'bfosf] k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df nfut / kmfObf ljt/0f ul/G5 . s'g} klg d'n'sn] cfk\mgf] /fHo ;~rfng ug{ k|To]s jif{ cfk\mgf] cfo / Joosf] lx;fj lstfj ;fj{hlgs ub{5,h;nfO{ ah]6 elgG5 . h;df vr{ Joxf]l/g] >f]t,/fhZj,cfGtl/s÷jfXo C0f÷;xfotf cflbsf] /sd klg pNn]v ul/Psf] x'G5 .

jh]6sf p4]Zox? M–
Ø /fli6«o cfosf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f
Ø d"No l:y/tf
Ø cfly{s l:y/tf
Ø ;Lldt ;fwgsf] plrt kl/rfng
Ø ;/sf/sf] k"FhL lgdf{0f
Ø e'QmfgL ;Gt'ng
Ø ;fwg >f]tsf] plrt kl/rfng
Ø nufgLsf] j[l4b/ a9fpg]
Ø cfly{s cf;dfgtf x6fpg]
Ø /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x?sf] clej[l4 .
        o:tf] p4]Zo ePsf] ah]6n] :yfkgf sfndf h];'s} tYo :yflkt u/]tf klg xfn o;sf] If]q / hgtfdf k'¥ofpg' kg]{ bfloTj a9g uPsf] 5 . sd{rf/L b/jGbL 36fpg] k|ltj]bg tof/ e};s]sf] 5, MTEF nfu" eO;s]sf]5, ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf dfWodaf6 :yfgLo lgsfo ;jnLs/0f ug]{ elgPsf] 5, s/f/ lgb]{lzsf hf/L 5, VAT cGtz'Ns / s/sf] bfo/f km/flsnf] kfg]{ k|of; ePsf] 5, oL ;j} k|of; cfDbfgL j9fO{ ah]6sf] dxTjnfO{ b[li6ut u/fpgsf nflu xf] elg dfGg ;lsG5 .
        ah]6n] xfn cfP/ u/]sf] k|ultx? M–
Ø sd k|fyldstf k|fKt sl/j @)) j6f cfof]hgfx? 36fOPsf]÷;dfof]hg ul/Psf] ÷h;sf sf/0f k|fyldstf k|fKt cfof]hgfdf jh]6 nufgL eO{ hghLjg If]qdf ;'wf/       ;+s]t cfPsf] 5 .
Ø lk1 cfof]hgfdf pNn]Vo j[l4÷ljsf; jh]6sf] &%% eGbf j9L o; k|sf/sf cfof]hgfdf        ljlgof]hg .
Ø cfjlws of]hgfsf] p4]Zo cg'?k k|fyldlss/0f
Ø ljlQo cg'zf;gdf ;'wf/ cfPsf]]]] 5 .   
ü cfGtl/s C0f 36]sf] 5
ü jh]6 3f6f jfl~5t :t/df sfod
ü over draft pNn]Vo ?kdf 36]sf]
ü k|ultsf] cfwf/df lgsfzf ug]{ k/Dk/f 5 .
Ø ;fj{hlgs vr{ jfF8kmf8df ;'wf/ cfPsf] 5
Ø k|fyldstf k|fKt cfof]hgfx?df jh]6 ljlgof]hg a9fOPsf] .
Ø cfjlws of]hgf / jflif{s jh]6 jLr tfnd]n sfod .
Ø ah]6 lgsf;fdf lglZrttf k|bfg
Ø ah]6 th'{df sfo{df kf/blz{tf NofOPsf] .
               o;k|sf/ lj=;+=@))* b]lv cfPsf] ah]6n] xfn cfP/ ;Lldt >f]tn] cl;dLt cfjZostf k'/f ug{ k/]sf] 5 . cfufdL lbgdf ul/jL lgjf/0fsf] /fli6«o nIodf of]ubfg, If]qLo ;Gt'ng,;+3Lotfdf afF8kmfF8 h:tf s'/fdf nflu kl/ jt{dfgdf lghL If]q;Fu k|lt:kwf{ ;d]t ug'{ kg]{ ePsf]n] bIf hgzlQmsf] ljsf;, ljifout dGqfnosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@^=    ;fj{hlgs gLlt eGgfn] s] a'e\mg'x'G5 < ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] th'{df tyf sfof{Gjogdf       ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] s:tf] e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 < pbfx/0f ;lxt rrf{ ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M–  æ;fj{hlgs gLlt, th'{df / sfof{Gjogsdf k|zf;gsf] e"ldsfÆ
       ;fj{hlgs gLlt eg]sf]s] xf] <
       ;fj{hlgs gLlt Pre-determined course of Action xf] . /fHosf] jftfj/0f;Fu ;/sf/n] cfk"mnfO{ Instrumentalised ug]{ tool sf] ?kdf o;nfO{ lnOG5 . o;n] ;fj{hlgs rl/qsf] s'g} lglZrt Issue nfO{ nlIft ub{5 .
       kl/efiff
        David Easton M–;dfhsf nflu d"Nox?sf] k|flwsfl/s ljefhg jf ljt/0f
        Thomas R. Dye – Whatever government chooses to do or not to do.
       gLlt th'{df M– ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] rog jf lgdf{0fnfO{ ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df elgG5 . of] ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] Ol~hlgol/ª Design part xf] . p4]Zo lgwf{/0f, k|fyldstf lgwf{/0f, ;fwg >f]tsf] cg'dfg / ;+:yfut jGbf]j:t tyf sfof{Gjogsf] ;dli6ut k|f?k tof/ ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ;fj{hlgs gLltsf] th'{df elgG5 . o;nfO{ r/0fj4 cg'zf;gsf] ?kdf lnOG5 . o;df Identification, develop, Analysis, Selection, decision / Announce kb{5 . o;df ljleGg lgsfosf] e"ldsf / k|efj x'g] u5{ .
       sfof{Gjog M– th'{df ePsf] gLltsf] sfof{Gjog4f/f ;/sf/ / hgtfsf] cGt/;DaGwnfO{ ultlzn, kmnbfoL, ;s/fTds / pQ/bfoL agfpg] sfo{ g} sfof{Gjog xf] . sfof{Gjogsf ;fy ;fy Monitoring nfO{ klg ljz]if Wofg lbg' kb{5 . o;df jftfj/0f tof/ ug]{, sfo{ ;~rfng / cg'udgsf] kIfx? kb{5g\ .
       ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df / sfof{Gjogdf k|zf;gsf] s:tf] e"ldsf /x]sf] x'G5 <
è hg;xeflutf clej[l4 ug]{
è /fhg}lts / ;+:yfut Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;'emfj lbg]]]]]]]
è cfw'lgs ;"rgf k|ljlw cg's'n tYof+s Pj+ ;'rgfx? ;+sng ul/ /fhg}lts g]t[TjnfO{     cfjZos k/]sf] ;dodf pknAw u/fpg] .
è s] p4]Zo /fVbf hgtfsf] k|fyldstf k"/f x'G5g eGg] ;'emfj /fhg}lts g]t[TjnfO{ lbg'
è Situation Analysis, data, information collection u/L Input lbg]
è th'{df / sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf jfwf c8\rg x6fpg'
è gLltsf] efjgf cg';f/ sfof{Gjog ug'{
è gLlt th'{df ubf{ k|fKt ljsNkx?sf] 5gf}6df :ki6tf sfod ug]{  
è Scientific tools and technique cg'?k gLltsf] d"Nof+sg ug'{
è ljj]sk"0f{ 5gf}6df ;xof]u ug'{
è sfof{Gjog nIo / lg0f{x?df Translate ug'{
è ;dGjo ug'{, k|ultsf] briefing ug'{, cg'udg ug'{ / Feedback lbg'''' .
       g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df ubf{ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g :yflfoTj ;]jf ePsf]n] o;}df k]zfut ljlzi6tf Pj+ hfgsf/Lsf] >f]t x'g]x'Fbf ;d]t ck]lIft pknAw xfl;n x'g g;s]sf] x'Fbf e"ldsf k|efjsf/L eGg ;lsg] cj:yf b]lvb}g . h;sf] pbfx/0f Situation Analysis g} gu/L gLlt th'{df ul/gfn] kl/j]z cg's"nsf] gLlt gaGg' xf] . vf;u/L ljutsf] gLltx? d"Nof+sg gu/L efjL gLlt rog x'gfn] xrkr, cfjZostfn] lgb]{lzt tyf xtf/ xtf/df gLlt th'{df ePsf] kfOG5 . /fhg}lts cl:y/tfsf sf/0f k|zf;gdf g]t[Tj klg cl:y/ ePsf] x'gfn] gLltsf] efjgfdf ;d]t k|efj kg{ uO{ gLlt 8]lunf] x'g gkfFpb} csf]{ gLlt th'{df x'Fbf k|zf;g ;d]t cGof]ndf kg{ uPsf] b]lvG5 .
-@&_   ;+u7g u7gsf cfwf/x? s] s] x'g ;Sb5g < g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gsf] ;+u7g :yfkgfdf oL cfwf/x?nfO{ s'g xb;Dd cfTd;ft u/]sf] kfpg'x'G5 < pbfx/0f ;lxt    :ki6 ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æ;+u7g,u7gsf cfwf/x? / cfwf/x?sf] cfTd;ftÆ
       ;+u7g M–lglZrt p4]Zo k|flKtsf nflu Ps eGbf j9L dflg;x?sf] k|oTg z'? x'g'g} ;+u7gsf] k|fb'efj xf] . nIo k|fKtLsf nflu dflg;x? aLrsf] sfo{ ljefhg xf] . Association for attainment of common people jf ;dGjofTds ?kdf sfd sfh ug]{ k4lt ljz]if /x]sf] clwsf/sf] j}wflgs :j?k g} ;+u7g xf] .
       "Organization is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpore that relating specific duties or function in a co–ordinated manager." I.D.Mooney
       ;+u7gdf sfo{ljehg, ;d"xefj, lg0f{o k|s[of, :t/o'Qm sfo{ljlw / sd{rf/L k|zf;g ;dlji6 ePsf] x'G5 .
       ;+u7g u7gsf cfwf/x? / cfwf/x?sf] cfTd;ft
       ;+u7gsf] :yfkgf s'g cfwf/df ug'{kb{5 eGg] dfGotfsf] ljsf; Luther Gullick sf] ;do b]lv g} ePsf] b]lvG5 . 4 Ps sf] ?kdf pgn] k|ltkfbg u/]sf] l;4fGtsf] k|efjsfl/tf, cf}lrTo, lqmoflzntf h:tf kIfnfO{ kf]if0f ug]{ ub{5 . ljz]if ul/ ;+:yfsf] sfo{, ;]jf k|bfg ug'{kg]{ ju{ If]q tyf ;]jfsf k|s[ltsf cfwf/df ;+u7gsf] :yfkgf ul/Psf] x'G5 . ltgnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 .
       -!_ People/client Principle M–ljlzi6 ju{ jf JolQmsf] lxtsf nflu :yfkgf ul/Psf] ;+u7gx?, ;/sf/sf] k|ltj4tf, ;+j}wflgs Joj:yf tyf cGt/f{li6«o kl/j]znfO{ dWogh/ /fv]/ o:tf ;+u7gx? :yfkgf ul/Psf] x'G5 .
              g]kfndf dlxnf, jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfhsNof0f dGqfno, /fli6«o blnt cfof]u, /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u o:t} ju{ jf JolQmsf] lxtnfO{ dWogh/ /flv :yfkgf ePsf x'Fbf of] cfwf/sf] cfTd;ft ePsf] dfGg ;lsG5 . o;} u/L JolQm jf ;]jf k|fKt ug]{ JolQmsf] nflu ljdf ;+:yfgs} pbfx/0f ln+bf o'jf tyf jfn, ljjflxt JolQm, j[4 tyf j[4f jLdf JolQmsf] cfwf/df cfTd;ft ul/ :yfkgf ePsf] x'Fbf cfwf/ cfTd;ft ePsf] kfOG5 .
       -@_ Purpose/Function Principle M–s'g} lglZrt p4]Zo k|lKtsf nflu :yfkgf ul/Psf x'G5g, k|rlnt / k'/fgf] ;+u7g lgdf{0fsf] cfwf/, oL ;+u7gx?sf] pTkfbg / k|efj b'j}nfO{ ljleGg :j?kdf b]Vg jf dfkg ug{ ;lsG5 .
       g]kfndf ljlzi6 p4]Zo ;lxt :yfkgf ul/Psf o:tf ;+:yfx?df
                     u[x dGqfno–    zfGtL ;'/Iff,;Ldf,cWofudg cflb .
                     /Iff dGqfno–    o'4,b]zsf] /Iff, zfGtL cdgrog .
lzIff dGqfno–   k|fylds÷dfWolds÷pRrlzIff,gLlt th'{df sfof{Gjog .
                     ljdf ;+:yfg–     JolQmut jLdf÷lhlG;jLdf .
       dfyLsf cfwf/ / pbfx/0f x]bf{ g]kfndf p4]Zosf] cfwf/df ;+u7g :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5  eGg] s'/fnfO{ cfTd;ft ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
       -#_ Process Principle M– ljlzi6 lsl;dsf] bIftf, of]Uotf tyf zLksf] kmfO{bf lng] u/L lgdf{0f ul/g] ;+u7g,j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] pTkfbg tyf ljsf;sf] lgldQ ljz]if1tfsf] ;]jf lbg] p4]Zon] :yfkgf ul/g] ;+u7gx? o;df kb{5g\ . g]kfndf o:tf ;+u7gx?df jftfj/0f, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw k|1f k|lti7fg, zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefu cfbL kb{5g .     jLdf ;+:yfsf] pbfx/0f lb+bf k|lqmofut pbfx/0fdf rf]/L n'6kf6 jLdf, cfuhgL jLdf elg sfo{ljlw cg';f/ u7g ul/Psf] kfOG5 . dfyLsf pbfx/0f cg';f/ of] cfwf/ klg g]kfndf  cfTd;ft ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
       -$_ Place/Area Principle M– s'g} lglZrt :yfgdf /x]/ j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] pTkfbgsf lgldQ :yfkgf ul/g] ;+u7g, b]zsf] s'g} efudf b]lvPsf ;d:of ;dfwfg ug{ :yfkgf ul/g], ;+j}wflgs jf sfg"gL ?kdf g} s'g} If]qdf ljz]if Joj:Yff ug{ :yfkgf ul/g] ;+u7gx? o; cfwf/df kb{5g\ . g]kfndf o:tf ;+u7gx?df klZrd t/fO{ ul/jL lgjf/0f kl/of]hgf, ljleGg gu/ljsf; ;ldltx?, If]qLo÷lhNnf sfof{nox?, Onfsf tyf :yfgLo sfof{nox? kb{5g .
       lgisz{M
       g]kfn ;/sf/sf] tk{maf6 cfd gful/snfO{ ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] ljt/0f k|efjsf/L kfg{ / cTofjZos ;]jf k'¥ofpg ljleGg k|zf;sLo ;+u7gx?sf] Joj:Yff ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L :yfkgf ul/Psf ;+u7gx? dWo] clwsf+z ;+u7gx? pk/f]Qm cfwf/x?nfO{ dWogh/ /fv]/ th'{df ul/Psf 5g\ . g]kfn ;/sf/sf df}h"bf ;+u7gx? dfyLsf cfwf/sf cltl/Qm ;+/rgfTds cfwf/df ;d]t :yfkgf ePsf] kfOG5g hf] gLlt th'{df b]lv sfof{Gjog, /fhZj ;+sng, u'Ktr/L ;]jf ;d]tsf sfo{df ;+nUg /x]sf 5g\ . cfd gful/ssf jLrdf /fHosf] pkl:yltsf] jf]w u/fpg] /fHosf] ;+u7gx? d"ntM zfGtL ;'/Iff, ljsf; lgdf{0f sfo{df gful/s ;xeflutf j[l4 ug{ clek|]l/t /x]tf klg dfyLsf  cfwf/x? g} cfTd;ft ul/P/ g} clwsf+z ;+u7gx? :yfkgf ePsf 5g\ .
-@*_   cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf ;Gbe{df g]kfndf ePsf k|jGwx? jf/] ;+If]kdf rrf{ ub}{ k|efjsf/L cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf nflu ul/g'kg]{ ;'wf/ jf/] cfk\mgf] wf/0ff k|:t't ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æcg'udg d"Nof+sg, g]kfndf Joj:yf / ;'emfjÆ
        cg'udg M Search of  What happen, How and Why ? cg'udg eg]sf] sfof{Gjog s;/L ePsf] 5 egL ul/g] lg/Gt/ cjnf]sg, lg/LIf0f / ;'k/Lj]If0f xf] . o;n] sfo{;Dkfbgdf ;'wf/ Nofpg / s'g} sfo{df sld / Jojwfg ePdf ;do d} ;'wf/fTds sbd p7fpg ;Ifd
t'Nofp+5 .
        d"Nof+sg M Search of What different does it Make ? d"Nof+sg s'g} klg gLlt jf sfo{qmdsf] clGtd jf kl5Nnf] r/0f xf] . of] r/0fdf cGt/j:t', sfof{Gjog / o;sf c;/ Pj+ k|efjx?sf] n]vfhf]vf ug]{ ul/G5 . p4]Zosf] cfwf/df lqmofsnfkx?sf] ;fGble{stf, bIftf, k|efjsf/Ltf / k|efjsf] ;'Jojl:yt / p4]Zok"0f{ t/Lsfn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ Ps k|s[of d"Nof+sg
xf] .
       cg'udg d'Nof+sg
cg'udg
d"Nof+sg
lg/Gt/ cjnf]sg, lg/LIf0f / ;'k/Lj]If0f
sfof{Gjog,c;/ tyf k|efjsf] n]vfhf]vf
sfof{Gjog r/0fdf ul/G5
sfd ;DkGg ePkl5 ul/G5
s] eof] < lsg eof] < s;/L eof] < x]l/G5
s] s:tf kl/jt{g cfPsf 5g < x]l/G5
Contineous Process xf] .
k5f8L kms]{/ x]g]{ k|s[of xf]]]]
d'Votof ;+u7g leq}jf6 ul/G5
;+u7g jflx/sf :jtGq lgsfojf6 ;d]t ul/G5
       g]kfndf cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf] Joj:yf
Ø ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt ;j} dGqfnox?df cg'udg d"Nof+sg dxfzfvf÷zfvfx?sf]         :yfkgf / Joj:yf
Ø s]xL ljefux?df cg'udg zfvf :yfkgf
Ø ul/jL cg'udgsf] nfuL 5'6[} k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf / cg'udg ;"rsx?sf] 5gf}6
Ø ul/jL cg'udg Joj:yfnfO{ s]Gb| b]lv :yflgo tx;Dd ;+:yfut ;'b[l9s/0f    
Ø lhNnf ul/jL cg'udg tyf ljZn]if0f k|0ffnLsf] gd"gf tof/ u/L lh=lj=;=dfk{mt sfo{    yfngL
Ø s[lifIf]qsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds Ifdtf ;DaGwL gLltsf] k|efjsfl/tf d"Nof+sg
Ø s]xL cfof]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] nufgLsf] k|efjsfl/tf cWoog z'?
Ø lzIff, :jf:Y\o tyf ;8s If]qsf] ;jf{hlgs vr{ k|jfx cg'udg ;j]{If0f Joj:yf
Ø cg'udg d'Nof+sg sfo{df ;+nUg hgzlQmnfO{ k|lzIf0f sfo{qmd
Ø cfof]hgf sfo{;Dkfbg ;"rgf k|0ffnL dfk{mt jflif{s sfo{qmd tyf k|ult k|lbj]bg          k|lqmof z'?
Ø sfo{k|ult x]/L sfo{;Dkfbg d"ns jh]6 k|0ffnL cjnDag
Ø /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u / cy{ dGqfnon] k|of]u ub}{ cfPsf] aflif{s sfo{qmd / k|ult        k|ltj]bg kmf/fddf Ps?ktf
       o; afx]s gful/s ;dfh,d=n]=lg=sf=÷sf]=n]=lg=sf=x?÷/fli6«o ljsf; kl/ifb,d=n]=k=sf] sfof{no, bft[;+:yf Pjd\ lgsfox?,u}=;=If]q, ljz]if cfof]u, ;ldlt / sfo{bnx?, ;+;bLo ;ldltx? cflbx?af6 klg cg'udg d'Nof+sg ug]{ k|jGw ul/Psf]÷k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf ljleGg ;b:ox? x'g] Ps s]Gb|Lo cg'udg d"Nof+sg Pj+ ;'k/Lj]If0f ;ldltsf] klg k|jGw 5 .
       cg'udg d"Nof+sgsf nflu ul/g' kg]{ ;'wf/x?
Ø /fli6«o ljsf; ;d:of ;dfwfg ;ldlt / dGqfno ljsf; ;d:of ;dfwfg ;ldltsf] j}7s lgwf{l/t ;dodf / lgodLt /fVg]]]]]]]]
Ø k[i7kf]if0fnfO{ ljsf; of]hgf, sfo{qmd,cfof]hgf th'{df / sfof{Gjogdf k|of]u ug]{,
Ø c÷d" sf] ;+u7gfTds ;'b[l9s/0f, ;+hfnLs/0f / ;dGjodf Wofg lbg] sfg"gL Joj:yf   ug]{
Ø c÷d" sf] sfo{df ;+nUg hgzlQmnfO{ k|f]T;fxg lbg], lg/Gt/tf lbg] / sfo{;Dkfbg       ;"rgf k|0ffnLsf] pkof]unfO{ p4]Zofg';f/ kfg]{,
Ø e/kbf]{,;doj4 / ;dfj]zL gLlt cg';f/ ;"rgf tyf tYof+sx?sf] k|jfx ug]{
Ø ;do ;f+k]If ?kdf of] Joj:yfnfO{ kl/dfh{g / ;+:yfut ug]{
Ø ljleGg txsf] cg'udgnfO{ j:t'k/s agfpg]
Ø hjfkmb]lxtf, kf/blz{tfdf j9fjf lbg lhDd]jf/ lgsfo dfq tf]s]/ k'Ub}g o;sf nflu reporting mechanism >f]t;fwg, lhDd]jf/L / Incentive k|0ffnLnfO{ ;d]t Jojl:yt ug'{k5{ .
Ø o;/L u/]df cg'udg d"Nof+sg lgodLt, e/kbf]{ / k|efjsf/L eO{ lgwf{l/t kl/0ffd, ;do, nfut, u'0f:t/ ;'wf/ e} j}b]lzs ;xof]usf] clwstd ;b'kof]u x'g] / ljsf; ;fe]mbf/x?sf] g]kfnk|ltsf] ljZjf; ;d]t clej[l4 e} of] Joj:yf k|efjsf/L x'g]5 .

-@(_   k|zf;lgs k|efjsfl/tfsf nflu ;dGjon] s:tf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] x'G5 < cjwf/0ffTds kIfnfO{ ;d]t b[li6ut ub}{ cfk\mgf ljrf/ JoQm ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M– æk|zf;gdf ;dGjosf] e"ldsf / cjwf/0ffTds kIfÆ
      ;dGjo M– s'g} klg ;+u7gsf ljleGg zfvf, dxfzfvf tyf PsfO{x? jf tL lgsfo jf PsfO{x?df sfo{/t clwg:y Pjd\ pRr sd{rf/Lx? tyf clwg:y / pRr pRr txsf sd{rf/Lx? jLrdf s'g} klg sfo{;Dkfbgsf] qmddf ldnfOg] tfnd]n,h'6fOg] k|of; / sfod ul/g] ;dembf/L Pjd\ ;fdGh:o tyf Ps ;+u7gn] csf]{ ;+u7g jLr cGt/ ;+u7g :t/Lo ?kdf Ps csf{sf sfo{x? ;'rf? ?kn] ;~rfng ug]{ u/fpg] l;nl;nfdf tL lgsfox? jLrdf sfod /flvg] cfk;L ;xof]u, ;dembf/L / ;fdGh:otfnfO{ ;dli6ut ?kdf ;dGjo elgG5 .
       –;+u7gsf] nIo xfl;n ug{ ljleGg ;+u7gx? tyf JolQmx?sf] lqmofsnfknfO{ Ps ;fy hf]8\g] k|lqmof g} ;dGjo xf] .  
       k|zf;gdf ;dGjosf] e"ldsf
       k|zf;gdf oqtq 5l/P/ /x]sf ;|f]t / ;fwgnfO{ Ps;fy h'6fpg] tyf ;+u7gsf ;b:ox? jLr pTkGg 4Gbx?nfO{ ;d'lrt lgsf; k|bfg u/L JolQmut cfjZostfx?df ;d]t Wofg lbO{ ;fd"lxs k|of;nfO{ ;+u7gfTds nIo k"lt{ ug]{ lbzfdf n}hfg dxTjk"0f{ ;fwg g} ;dGjo x'gfn] ;+u7gdf cjZo g} o;sf] e"ldsf /xG5, ;+u7gdf ;dGjosf] e"ldsfnfO{ b]xfo jdf]lhd k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 .
Ø sfo{ k|s[lt / dfgjLo k|j[lQ jLr /x]sf] ljljwtfnfO{ Pstf sfod ug{
Ø sfo{df bf]xf]/f]kgf x6fpg
Ø ;+u7gfTds sfo{bIftfsf ;fy ;fy} ldtJolotf sfod u/fpg
Ø sd{rf/Ldf dgf]jn / pTk|]/0ff Pj+ xf};nf j9fpg
Ø sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/sf] jLrdf ;fd~h:otf Nofpg
Ø cg'zfl;t jftfj/0f sfod /fVg      
Ø sd{rf/Lx?df ;fd"lxs efjgf hfu[t u/fpg,;xsf/Ltfsf] efjgfsf] ljsf; u/fpg
Ø sfo{nfO{ ;/n, sd vlr{nf] / kf/bzL{ jgfpg
Ø ;+u7gdf /fd|f] sfo{sf] jftfjf/0f l;h{gf ug{
Ø pTkfbsTjnfO{ j9fjf lbg
       o; jfx]s nIo / sfo{jLrsf] c:ki6tf x6fpg b]lv lnP/ ;du| Joj:yfkg kIfnfO{ cu|ufdL lbzftk{m nUg k|zf;gdf ;dGjosf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 .
       cjwf/0ffTds kIf
       ;dGjo eGg] s'/f hj ;+u7g :yfkgf x'g yfn] tj b]lv g} cfPsf] xf] . ;+u7g z'?df sd lyP / /fHon] ;]jf k|jfx klg w]/} If]qdf ug{ kb}{gYof], hj hgtfsf] ;]jf If]q j[l4 eP To; kl5 Ps} k|s[ltsf] ;]jfsf nflu @ lgsfo jLr klg ;dGjo x'g' kg]{ cj:yf cfof] . h:t} M– ;8s tyf vfg]kfgL, lhNnf:t/ / s]Gb|Lo:t/sf sfof{nox?, cy{ dGqfno / NPC, dGqfno tyf ljefux? h:tf lgsfo jLr ;dGjo ePg eg] pTkfbsTj 36\g], lgodLt sfo{;Dkfbgdf jfwf kg]{, cfGtl/s / jfXo jftfj/0f jLr ;fdGh:o gx'g], dgd'6fj j9g] tyf Joj:yfksLo bIftf j9fpg g;lsg] ePsfn] hgtfsf] ;]jf / ;+u7gsf] ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 7fgL dfyLsf] ;d:ofsf] lgbfgsf nflu o:tf] cjwf/0ff cfPsf] xf] .

-#)_   k|zf;gsf] Ifdtf / bIftf clej[l4 ug{ /fhg}lts If]qn] k'¥ofpg' kg]{ ;xof]u jf/] ;+If]kdf JofVof ub}{ g]kfndf /fhgLlt / k|zf;g jLrsf] cGt/;DaGw s:tf] /x]sf] kfpg'x'G5 < pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
pQ/ M–  æk|zf;g / /fhgLlt, k|zf;gdf /fhg}lts ;xof]u / b'O{ jLrsf] cGt/;DaGwÆ
       k|zf;g / /fhgLlt
§  /fhg}lts lg0f{osf] sfof{Gjog, gLltx?sf] sfof{Gjog / gLlt lgdf{0fdf ;xof]u ub}{ k|zf;gsf] lg/Gt/tf lbg] :yfoL If]q h;af6 lghfdtL ;]jfsf] ;~rfng ul/Psf] x'G5 To;nfO{ k|zf;g elgG5 .
§  /fli6«o :jfy{df Wofg lbg], hgrf;f]sf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ /fli6«o ljsf;sf nflu sfd l;h{gf ug]{ Pj+ ;f]xL jdf]lhd gLlt lgdf{0f u/L k|zf;g dfk{mt sfof{Gjog u/fpg] If]q /fhgLlt xf] .
              /fhgLlt / k|zf;g b'j}sf] p4]Zo /fli6«o :jfy{, pRrtd ;]jf k|bfg, ljsf;, ;d[4 ;dfhsf] :yfkgf ug'{ ePsf]n] oL b'j} jfudtL / lji0f'dtL glb h:t} x'g\ . pb\ud:yn cnu cnu ePklg 6]s' bf]efgdf gldl;O{ ;'v} 5}g . klxn] klxn] oL b'j} Ps}lyP ;g\ !**& df p8«f] ljN;gsf] The study of public Administration k|sfzg ePkl5 klxnf] k6s /fhgLlt / k|zf;g km/s x'g eGg] wf/0ff k|sfzdf cfof] .
       k|zf;gdf /fhg}lts  If]qn] k'¥ofpg' kg]{ ;xof]u
Ø sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ /fhg}lts cf:yfsf] ?kdf e]befj gu/L :jL; ;/sf/sf] ?kdf ;xof]u ug'{kg]{
Ø k|zf;gdf /x]sf] 1fg,;Lk, cg'ej / IfdtfnfO{ /fhg}lts If]qn] ;w} gLlt lgdf{0f / sfof{Gjogdf ;xof]u k'Ug] u/L pkof]u ug'{kg]{
Ø ;b}j ;/sf/ k|lt k|zf;g jkmfbf/ /xg] jftfj/0fsf] l;h{gf
Ø /fhg}lts If]qn] k|zf;gnfO{ cfk"m cg's'n x'g] u/L bjfj glbO{ t6:y /xL lgle{s 9+un] sfd ug]{ cj:yf jgfO{ lbg' k5{ .
Ø k|zf;gaf6 k'0f{ ?kdf a:t'ut eP/ ;Nnfx lnO{ sfo{sf/Ljf6 ePsf lg0f{onfO{ OdfGbf/Ltfsf ;fy kfngf ug{ ;xof]u ug'{kg]{,
Ø kl/jlt{t ;Gbe{sf /fhg}lts dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu k|ltj4 k|zf;g jgfpg
Ø /fhgLltjf6} k|zf;gn] j}wflgstf k|fKt ug]{ ePsf]n] ;fdflhs ;+j]bgzLntfsf If]qdf ;xof]u
Ø o;afx]s k|hftflGqs d"NodfGotfsf] ;+/If0f,df}lns xssf] k|Tofe"lt, ;+j}wflgs ;+/If0f / k]zfut d"No dfGotfsf] kl/kfngf ug]{ sfo{sf nflu /fhgLlt If]qn] ;w} k|zf;gnfO{ k|ltj4 /fVg ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' k5{ .
       cGt/;DaGw
       ;/sf/sf] e"ldsf,jx'njfbL ;dfh, cfly{s ljsf; / /fhg}lts kl/j]z tyf ljlzli6s/0f Pj+ ljsf;sf] cfwf/df b'j}sf] ;DaGw g]kfndf b]xfo jdf]lhd b]lvG5M–
-      Ps csf{nfO{ k|efj kfg]{ k|of;
-      ;xsfo{ -;d:ofsf] ljifo_ k|zf;gsf] Joj;flos/0fdf /fhgLlt af6 ;do ;dodf gLlt, lgod lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 .
-      b'j}sf] sfo{ If]q lgwf{/0f 5, cx:tIf]k
-      ;dGjo / sfo{ljefhgdf :ki6tf
-      Ps csf{sf k"/s
-      k|zf;gn] a]nfjvtdf /fo ;Nnfx lbg] .
-      k|zf;gn] /fhgLltjf6} clwsf/ j}wflgstf / Ifdtf k|fKt ug]{
       lgisif{ M
        o;k|sf/ /fhgLltn] cGt/;DaGwdf km/flsnf] kfg{ ;do ;fk]If P]g sfg"g lgdf{0f, kf/blz{tf Pj+ hjfkmb]xL k|zf;g agfpg /fhg}lts lgo'lQmnfO{ :ki6 ug]{, /fhg}lts x:If]k sd u/L /fhg}lts bjfjnfO{ dfsf{sf] ?kdf ;'gjfO{ ug]{ ;oGqsf] ljsf; u/L ;;+bLo 5'§} ;ldlt /fv] b'Osf] cGt/;DaGwdf ePsf ;d:ofx? klg gcfpg] Pjd\ x6g uO{ ;'b[9 x'g hfg]
b]lvG5 .
-#!_ g]kfnsf] lghfdtL ;]jfdf cf/If0f / ;sf/fTds lje]bn] v]n]sf] e"ldsf klxrfg ub}{ o;sf sdL sdhf]/L ;d]t cf}Nofpg'xf]; . ;fy} o;nfO{ cem a9L k|efjsf/L agfpg s] ug'{kg]{ 7fGg'x'G5 < pNn]v ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, @)$( -bf]>f] ;+zf]wg @)^$_ x'Fbf ;sf/fTds lje]b cGt/ut cf/If0fsf] Joj:yf yk ul/of] . ;]jfnfO{ ;j} hfthftL, ju{, lnËsf dflg;x? ;+nUg u/L ;femf km"njf/Lsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug{ of] Joj:yf ul/Psf] xf] .
;sf/fTds lje]b / cf/If0fn] v]n]sf] e"ldsfnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 M
;sf/fTds e"ldsf
gsf/fTds e"ldsf
·       ;]jfdf ;j}sf] pkl:ylt ;'lglZrt eof],
·       xfdLx? / pgLx? eGg] efjgfsf] ljsf; eof]
·       ;]jf k|lt ;j}sf] ckgTj / :jfldTjsf] efjgf ljsf; eof]
·       Merit System ;Fu ;Demf}tf ul/of]
·       ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] l;4fGt nfu" eof]
·       ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ s]xL vl:sPsf] eGg] tYox? cfpg yfn]sf 5g\
·       lglZrt ju{ dfly nufOPsf] Psflwsf/ jr{:jsf] cf/f]k aGb eof] .
·       k|ltef knfog tLj| x'g yfNof] .
cf/If0f / ;sf/fTds lje]bsf sdLsdhf]/Lx? M
·       hfthfltx?nfO{ cf/If0f ul/of] ju{nfO{ pk]Iff eof],
·       Creamy layer sf] Capture eof] -dlxnfsf sf]6fdf sd{rf/Lsf alxgL, 5f]/L / >LdtL kf;_,
·       cf/If0fn] Ifdtf ljsf; / ;zlQms/0fsf] dfWodnfO{ 5fofFdf kf¥of],
·       lbuf] ljsf;nfO{ Wofg lbOPg,
·       Negative List nfu" ul/Pg,
·       ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ ;Demf}tf ul/of] -;]jfsf] u'0f:t/_
·       Merit System 5fofFdf k¥of],
·       sd{rf/L jLr e]befj ul/of] -o; k4ltaf6 cfpg] rfF8} j9'jf x'g;Sg]_
·       nlIft ju{ klxrfg ul/Pg,
·       sd{rf/L jLrdf ljefhg pTkGg x'g] vt/f a9\b} uof] .
cf/If0f / ;sf/fTds lje]bnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg lgDg ;'emfjx? cjnDjg ul/g'k5{ M
·       Principle of Double Disadvantage sf] cjwf/0f nfu" ug{ k5{, -cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ef}uf]lns dWo] s'g} @ ;sf/fTds 5g\ eg] cf/If0f ul/g gx'g]_
·       Digital Gap x]l/g' k5{ . h:t} M hfthftL, wlg–ul/j, zx/L–u|fdL0f, lzlIft–clzlIft .
·       ;do ;Ldf :ki6 ls6fg ul/g'k5{ .
·       Pp6} JolQmnfO{ Pp6f eGbf j9L cfwf/sf] pkof]u ug{ lbg' x'b}g -h:t} M dlxnf, hghflt, dw];L_ To:tf] cj:yf eP s'g} Pp6f /f]Hg lbg'k5{ .
·       Ps k6sdfq lbg'k5{ .
·       zfvf clws[t jf ;f] ;/x ;Dddf ;Lldt ul/g'k5{ .
·       kbf]Ggltdf ;dfj]zLs/0f -cf/If0f_ lbg' x'Fb}g .
·       Ifdtf ljsf; / ;zlQms/0fdf ljz]if hf]8 lbOg'k5{ .
·       Negetive List agfpg'k5{ -/fi6«klt, k|wfgdGqL, dGqL, ;lrj jf jl/i7 kbflwsf/Lx? cflbsf 5f]/f 5f]/LnfO{ lbg' pko'Qm x'Fb}g_
lg:sif{ M
nfdf] ;do;Dd /fHosf ;fwg / cj;/df kx'Fr gk'u]sf] ju{nfO{ lghfdtL ;]jfdf cf/If0f lbg' pko'Qm xf] . t/ o;nfO{ lbuf] agfpg Ifdtf ljsf;df Wofg lbg e'Ng' xF'b}g . o; k|0ffnLnfO{ ;kmn agfpg dfly k|:t't ul/Psf ;'emfjx? nfu' ug'{ pko'Qm x'g] ljZjf; ub{5' .

-#@_ ;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0fsf d'Vo–d'Vo l;4fGtx?sf af/]df cfˆgf] k|:t'lt lbg'xf]; . g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df ug]{ k|lqmofdf oL l;4fGtx?sf] k|of]u s;/L ePsf] kfpg' x'G5 / oL ;}4flGts cfwf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf s:tf] /x]sf] b]Vg'x'G5 . ljj]rgf ug'{xf]; .
pQ/ M ;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0f
;fj{hlgs gLlt Pre-determined Course of Action xf] . /fHosf] jftfj/0f;Fu ;/sf/n] cfkm"nfO{ Instrumentalised ug]{ tool sf] ?kdf o;nfO{ lnOG5 . o;n] ;fj{hlgs rl/qsf] s'g} lglZrt Issue nfO{ nlIft ub{5 .
;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0f eg]sf] gLltnfO{ sfof{Gjogdf n}hfg tof/ ul/g] sfo{ xf] . of] ;fj{hflgs gLltsf] Engineering design Part xf] . o;df ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df, ljZn]if0f / sfof{Gjog tof/L h:tf dxTjk"0f{ sfo{x? ;dfj]z x'G5 .
;fj{hlgs gLlt lgdf{0fsf d'Vo d'Vo l;4fGtx? M
v  Process Approach :
·       The elite mass model
·       System Model
·       Functional Process Modal
·       Group Approach
·       Populist Model
·       Institutional Model
v  Out put/out come Approach :
·         Instrumentalist Model
·         Rationalist Model
v  Strategic Policy Making Approach :
·         Entrepreneurship Approach
·         Adoptive Approach
·         Planning Approach
g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{dfsf l;4fGtx?sf] k|of]u M
g]kfndf ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{df ubf{ s'g} vf; ;}4flGts cfwf/ lng] ul/Psf] b]lvb}g, gLlt th'{df ug{sf nflu vf; Guidelines klg 5}g, 7"nf] s'/f t Mega Policy g} k|of]u ePsf] kfO{b}g tyflk ;fj{hlgs gLlt th'{dfsf] ;}4flGts cfwf/ eGbf aflx/ uP/ gLlt th'{df x'g] ub}{g / klg s'g} cfwf/, k|lqmof, gLlt / l;4fGtsf] k|of]u gx'g] x'gfn] gLlt th'{df x'Fbf xrkrsf] cfwf/df (Rule of Thumb), cfjZostfn] lgb]{lzt eO{ / xtf/ xtf/df x'g] ub{5 . h:t} M
·       @)$& ;fnsf] /fhg}lts kl/jt{g kl5 cfly{s, ;fdflhs Pj+ /fhg}lts If]qsf gLltx? th'{df ubf{ Rationalist Model nfO{ k|of]u ul/Psf] kfOG5 . jflif{s jh]6 Pj+ sfo{qmd agfpFbf ;fdfGotM Instrumentalist Model sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 .
·       zf;gsf] ;'wf/sf] lgldQ ul/Psf] k|zf;g ;'wf/sf sfo{x?df Political System Theory / ;+:yfjfbsf] k|lqmofnfO{ cg'z/0f ul/Psf] kfOG5 eg] pBf]u / jfl0fHo If]qsf gLltx? Group / Elite Theory  sf cfwf/df tof/ ePsf] kfOG5 .
·       @)%! ;fndf ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf lbg] ;/sf/L gLltdf Rationalist  sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 eg] xfn;Dd ePsf] ;f] eQf j[l4df Incrementality  nfO{ cfwf/ dfg]sf] kfOG5 .
;}4flGts cfwf/sf] k|efjsfl/tf M
g]kfnsf] ;fj{hlgs gLltx?af6 ck]lIft pknlAw xfl;n x'g g;s]sf] x'Fbf o;sf] th'{df k|lqmof k|efjsf/L 5 eGg ;lsg] cj:yf 5}g . lsg ck|efjsf/L 5 t < elg x]bf{ k|lqmofTds kIfdf lgDg sdhf]/L kfOG5 M
·       Situation Analysis g} sdhf]/ 5 – th'{df ul/g] gLlt cfhsf] Real Ground sf] cfwf/df aGg' kg]{ xf] Tof] g} x'g ;s]g .
·       ljutsf gLltx?sf] d"Nof+ª\sg ug]{ kl/kf6L 5}g .
·       Consultation x'Fb}g, klxnf t Environment sf] ;xL d"Nof+ª\sg g} x'Fb}g / To;df yk Stakeholder Participation ul/b}g .
·       Proposal Writing df ;+:yfut xfjL 5 .
·       Analysis sf] Part t emg eofjx g} b]lvG5 .
·       Prospective / Consequency g} gx]l/g] x'Fbf g]kfnsf gLltx? clGtd nIo xfl;n ug{ c;Ifd b]lvPsf 5g .
gLlt lgdf{0fsf dxTjk"0f{ sfo{x? dWo] gLlt th"{df sfo{ /fd|f] b]lvPtf klg o;nfO{ Ground Reality df Nofpg' kb{5 . ljZn]if0f sfo{ Hofb} sdhf]/ /x]sf] / sfof{Gjog sfo{df Wofg glbPsf sf/0f gLlt aGg], sfof{Gjogdf ghfg], sfof{Gjogdf uPklg nlIft pknlAw xfl;n ug{ g;s]sf] cj:yf 5 t;y{ M lgDg Ifdtf ljsf; gu/L gx'g] cj:yf 5 M
Looking 'in' Capacity
Looking 'out' Capacity
Looking 'forward' Capacity
Stakeholder Participation /
Analytical capacity

pk/f]Qmfg';f/ Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ ;s] /fd|f] gLlt th"{df k|efjsf/L agfpg ;lsGYof] h;sf] kmn:j?k gLltn] /fv]sf] p2]Zo xfl;n x'g ;SYof] eGg] s'/fnfO{ Jojxf/df ptfg'{ h?/L 5 .

-##_ ;}4flGts cfwf/df ;'zf;gsf] rrf{ ub}{ g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod /fVg ul/Psf Joj:yfx? jf/] pNn]v ug'{xf];\ .
;'zf;g M æ;]jf cfk"lt{df sd{rf/LtGqnfO{ dfu{bz{g ug]{Æ
;'zf;g eg]sf] /fd|f] zf;g xf], s:tf] zf;gnfO{ /fd|f] dfGg] < zf;sLo clwsf/sf] ;d'lrt
-Goflos_ k|of]u, ;/sf/n] /fHozlQmsf] k|of]u ubf{ hgfb]zsf] kfngf ul/ j}wtf :yfkgf ug'{ g} /fd|f] zf;g÷;'zf;g xf] . ljZjJofkL ?kdf s]xL ;"rsx? dflgPsf 5gM– kf/blz{tf,pQ/bfloTj, hjfkmb]lxtf, ;xeflutf, sfg"gsf] zf;g, cg'dfgof]Uotf, ljs]Gb|Ls/0f, Goflos ;bfrfl/tf h:tf ljifox? .
       ;'zf;g Ps gful/s ;dfh / lghL If]qdf /xg] To:tf] d"No, gLlt, dfGotf jf ;+:yfut cEof; xf] h;af6 ;dfhn] cfwf/e"t cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf /fhg}lts clwsf/sf] ;dfgtfd"ns k|flKtsf] cg'e"lt ub{5 . /fHo, ;dfh / JolQmsf] j}wflgs clwsf/nfO{ j}wtf k|bfg ub{5 .
Governacne is Exercise of Power (Political, Economic, Social and Administrative) and Authority.
;}4flGts cfwf/
 


Political principle
Economic principle
k|ltlglwd"ns / hjfkmb]xL ;/sf/sf] :yfkgf
lbuf] Pj+ km/flsnf] cfly{s j[l4
;zQm gful/s ;dfh / gfful/s :jtGqtf
ul/jL lgjf/0f
sfg"gsf] zf;g / b08lxgtfsf] cGTo
ultzLn lghL If]q -k|lt:kwL{_
Transparency, Responsibility
Participation, Accountability /
predictability h:tf ljkifox? ;/sf/L sfd sf/jfxLdf :yfkgf .
v'nf jhf/d'vL cy{tGq
;DklQsf] ;'/Iff
;'b[9 /fli6«o cy{tGq

g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# n] ;'zf;gnfO{ /fHosf] bfloTjsf] ?kdf :jLsf/ u/]sf]n] ;fj{hlgs If]qdf cfjZos u/]/ hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ul/g] ;]jf k|jfxnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg' / gLlt lgdf{0f tx b]lv g} ;'zf;gsf cfwf/x?  to u/L sfof{GjognfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg' cfjZos  elg :ki6 kfl/Psf] 5 . o;/L ;+j}wflgs ?kdf ;'zf;gsf] jf/]df rrf{ ul/Psf] x'Fbf o;}nfO{ ;}4flGts cfwf/ dfGg ;lsG5, o;sf] cfwf/df ;'zf;g eGgfn] lgDg cj:yf ePsf]nfO{ dfGg ;lsG5 M
·       /fhgLlts ?kdf                       – nf]stflGqs/0f
·       cfly{s ?kdf                          – pbf/Ls/0f
·       zf;sLo zlQmsf]                      – ljs]Gb|Ls/0f
·       cf}Bf]lus / Jofkf/Ls If]qsf]             – ljZjJoflks/0f
·       lk5l8Psf] If]q, ln+u,ju{ / hfltsf]       – d"nk|jflxs/0f
·       ;fF:s[lts d"No / dfGotfsf]             – Plss/0f
·       ;/sf/sf] e"ldsfdf                    – Go"lgs/0f
·       k|zf;lgs If]qsf]                       – ;'b[l9s/0f
·       k|hftflGqs k4lt / cj;/df           – ;dfj]zLs/0f
·       lghL If]q / gful/s ;dfhsf]           – ;zlQms/0f
g]kfndf ;'zf;g sfod /fVg ul/Psf Joj:yfx? M
v ;+j}wflgs Joj:yfM
·       /fHosf] bfloTj, lgb]{zs l;4fGt / gLltx?df ;'zf;g sfod ug]{ ljifox? pNn]v
·       df}lns xsx?, zlQm k[ysLs/0f / ;Gt'ng, sfg"gL /fHo / dfgj clwsf/
v gLltut sfg"gL Joj:yfM
·       of]hgfjå ljsf;sf] qmddf gjf}+ of]hgfdf ;'zf;g pNn]v÷bzf}+ of]hgfsf] Ps lkn/ ;'zf;g ÷jt{dfg of]hgfdf klg ;'zf;g pNn]v
·       k|zf;g ;'wf/ cfof]u Pj+ zf;sLo ;'wf/df ;'zf;gsf] ;+sNk
·       ;'zf;g P]g, lgod / cfly{s P]g, lgodx?
·       lghfdtL ;]jf P]g, lgodfjnL
·       e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g cflb .
v ;+:yfut÷sfo{ut Joj:yfM
·       clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u÷/fli6«o ;ts{tf s]Gb|af6 ;bfrf/ kåltsf] z'?jft
·       x/]s dGqfno÷lgsfodf ;"rgf clwsf/L, gf]8n clws[tsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5
·       gful/s j8fkq, ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{, 3'DtL ;]jf, ;'emfj k]l6sf, x]Nk8]:s Pj+ x]nf] ;/sf/ dfk{mt ;'zf;gtk{m Wofgfsif{0f k|of;
·       lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;/nLs/0f k|of;    
·       E-Governance,  online  Services sf] z'?jft
·       Computer  df  Record /fVg] sfo{sf] z'?jft
·       Plss[t ;]jfsf] nflu sfof{no :yfkgf cflb .
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